History of Veterinary Medicine

During the second half of the 1900's, veterinary medicine branched out into hundreds of different specialties, and sub branches of interest:: In addition to equine, food animal, and pet medicine, different veterianarians began to concentrate on special interests such as food inspection, public health, zoo medicine, wildlife medicine and disease control, poultry science and medicine, fish diseases, reptile health, avian medicine, zoonotic diseases and on and on.  There are now hundreds of veterinary associations whose members concentrate on everything from missionary veterinary work to lobster diseases.

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There are many more links to our other pages below on your left.  There is a complete directory of links at the bottom of the page.  



Diffusion photometer designed; first light-scattering instrument to measure the size of molecules.

Economical methods for producing dextran developed; first used as alternative to blood plasma in Korean War.

National Poultry Improvement Plan authorized.

Exotic Newcastle disease (poultry) detected in the U.S.

Discovered that highly chlorinated naphthalene, a wax used in certain greases and oils, caused hyperkeratosis (X-disease) in cattle.

New form of streptomycin discovered.
Discovered the cause of salmon disease in foxes and dogs; the first rickettsial disease agent found to be transmitted by an internal parasite.

Of gainfully employed persons, 11 percent were engaged in agriculture

January 1 Ho Chi Minh begins offensive against French troops in Indo China
January 6 Britain recognizes Communist government of China

January 16 Belgium, Luxembourg and Netherlands recognize Israel
January 20 Suriname becomes independent part in Realm of Netherlands
January 26 India becomes a republic ceaseing to be a British dominion

January 31 President Truman approves building of hydrogen bomb despite public disapproval from Albert Einstein.

February 9 Senator Joseph McCarthy charges State Department infested with 205 communists  and also finds communists in U.S. Ministry of Foreign Affairs  For the next 50 years school children are taught that McCarthy was a drunken, right wing nut case but as more and more papers in Russia and the U.S. are declassified, it turns out McCarthy was correct in many instances and that a very left leaning media went way overboard in smearing McCarthy.

March 6 Silly Putty invented

March 8 Marshall Voroshilov of U.S.S.R. announces they developed atomic bomb

April 18 1st transatlantic jet passenger trip

May 21 Vietnamese troops of Ho Chi-Minh attack Cambodia

June 17 1st kidney transplant, Chicago

June 25 Korean conflict begins; North Korea invades South Korea with
U.N. member states using integrated forces against North Korea

June 27 North Koreans troop reach Seoul, United Nations asks members to aid South Korea, Truman orders Air Force and Navy into Korean conflict.   General Douglas McArthur soon to be named as UN commander in Chief in Korea.  U.S. soldiers start arriving in mass a week later and begin fighting North Koreans on land on July 3rd.

June 27 U.S. sends 35 military advisers to South Vietnam

July 19 The French/Vietnamese try to fend off the Viet Minh (communists led by Ho)  Despite brutal tactics, torture, and bombing of the cities in North Vietnam, the French are no match for the guerrilla warfare waged by the Viet Minh. 

The French beg America for help using the argument that the Communists will take over one country after another (The “Domino” effect) if they aren’t resisted. 

There is certainly some merit to this argument … most of Eastern Europe is being forced into communism, the communists of North Korea have just over run South Korea, The Communists in China have just ousted the Nationalists from the mainland, and are threatening their neighbors in Nepal, Tibet, Burma, and India.  The Communists in North Vietnam are involved in Laos and Cambodia and are primed to kick out the French and the kill or subdue non communists in South Vietnam.   Communist rebels try to take over the Philippines. 

Many of the Middle Eastern countries have strong pro –communist factions and
despite all the AID, assistance, and development of infra-structure given by the US: Syria, Egypt, and many other Middle Eastern countries are leaning to the Soviets. 

There are also strong pro communist factions in India, Turkey, Greece, and throughout  the Balkans.  It won’t be too many more years before many countries in the Caribbean (Cuba) and South America become communists or strongly pro communists.

July 27 President Truman promises aid to Taiwan to keep it from being run over by Communist China

August 17 Indonesia gains independence from Netherlands.  This country will soon become  home to the largest number of Muslims in the World.

There are only 196 countries in the world today (2014).  Over 100 of them gained their independence, usually after brutal internal power struggles, soon after world war ll.  I made a list for you lower down on this page in the left hand column.  It's rather staggering.  As I explain in the few paragraphs below, The United States sent a lot of humanitarian aid to these struggling countries with both charitable and self serving motives.  Part of the massive amount of aid involved veterinarians being sent around the world to teach and help needy countries control rampant animal disease, and set up modern animal husbandry programs, vaccination programs, parasite control programs, and inspection programs for meat, poultry, and dairy products.

1945-1953  The United States under President Truman spends hundreds of millions (Marshall Plan) to stabilize Western Europe (for fear of post war governments becoming communists).  And hundreds of millions more in foreign aid packages to Greece, Turkey, Egypt and many other countries which were experiencing extreme civil unrest.   President Eisenhower, who took over the presidency in 1953, and later President Kennedy would continue spending hundreds of millions (billions in today's dollars) on these and similar aid packages.  The Peace Corps is just one many programs US tax payers sponsor.

Veterinarians were part of the package

What you need to appreciate is that World War ll, quickly followed by the communist take over of half of Europe, and then almost all of China changed the power structure almost everywhere. 
Spain had lost most of her colonies in the previous century after being devasted by Napoleon (and the result was one civil war or revolution after another with either extreme right or extreme left wing govenments winning power for short periods).  Now, in the few decades after World War ll  .. the remaining colonial powers (mainly England, France, Belgium, Netherlands, Germany, & Portugal), became much more socialistic at home and were too broke and too weak to control their colonies any longer.  Most former colonies in Africa, India, The Middle East, Isreal, Burma, Tibet, South East Asia, and Polynesia would end up becoming independent.  We're talking about the majority of the land mass in the World.  And with a few peaceful exceptions, in almost every case there was intense power struggles within each of these countries to become the new rulers.  The groups struggling to gain power in each country might be roughly summarized  as follows:  Communist factions (heavily sponsored by the Soviets or Chinese), Royalists, Socialists, Moderates, Nationalists which were usually leaning toward right wing dictatorships, and in Indonesia, the Phillipines, India, the Balkans, all of Nothern Africa, and the Middle East, there were far right Muslim factions (moderate Muslims were usually silenced).  The United States usually sponsored which ever group or groups were likely to win as long as they weren't communists.  

And American sponsorship took the form of lots of money, lots of business and trade deals, massive building projects to build roads, schools, water treatment plants, electrical utilities, sewers, dams, ports, and airfields (all of which greatly benefited both local and American economies).  It included training thousands of future leaders at our best universities in  engineering, science, physics, business, medicine, agriculture, veterinary science, and  government.

And it included sending thousands of crop specialists, poultry and dairy experts, and veterinarians to these countries all in an attempt to stabilize extreme unrest, earn good will, and earn at least some polictical and financial influence.    The alternative was risking yet another country joining the opposing world powers of The Soviets or The Chinese.   And of course, Americans genuinely wanted to help; the people in many of these countries were literally starving and/or living in very primative conditions.  Poverty, disease, and high death rates were common.

1950's  Scientiest working on Malaria control in Columbia and a veterinarian demonstrating herd health vaccination.
Movies about animals are super popular in the 1940s with Elizabeth Taylor coming on the scene at age 11 in "Courage of Lassie" and "National Velvet"   By the 1950's many homes had television and shows about animals continue to be favorites.  Rin Tin Tin in the picture below and Lassie (with Timmie) in the picture above are well remembered by those of us who now have gray hair.  And nearly everyone knows who Mr. Ed, The Talking Horse is... he made his debut on television in 1959.  But did you know that before Mr. Ed, there was a great movie about "Francis the Talking Mule"?
Rin Tin Tin stars on television in the 50s
Lassie in the movies with young Elizabeth Taylor
Francis The Talking Mule was featured in 7 different movies in the 1950s as well as comic books

I've written on this page that since World War ll ended the old world order was greatly changed with about half of all the countries in the world becoming independent from their previous colonial masters.  The United States, for the most part, tried to help these new, struggling nations with money and aid and this aid included veterinarians sent to help with their animal and food health industries.  An exciting time for the vets involved and the companies, universities, and organizations that sent them.

Here's a list of countries in the world that gained their independence or birth after the war.

August 15, 1945 - Korea, North
August 15, 1945 - Korea, South
August 17, 1945 - Indonesia
Sept. 2, 1945 - Vietnam
April 17, 1946 - Syria
May 25, 1946 - Jordan
August 14, 1947 - Pakistan
August 15, 1947 - India
January 4, 1948 - Burma
February 4, 1948 - Sri Lanka
May 14, 1948 - Israel
July 19, 1949 - Laos
August 8, 1949 - Bhutan
December 24, 1951 - Libya
November 9, 1953 - Cambodia
January 1, 1956 - Sudan
March 2, 1956 - Morocco
March 20, 1956 - Tunisia
March 6, 1957 - Ghana
August 31, 1957 - Malaysia
October 2, 1958 - Guinea
January 1, 1960 - Cameroon
April 4, 1960 - Senegal
May 27, 1960 - Togo
June 30, 1960 - Congo, Republic of the
July 1, 1960 - Somalia
July 26, 1960 - Madagascar
August 1, 1960 - Benin
August 3, 1960 - Niger
August 5, 1960 - Burkina Faso
August 7, 1960 - Cote d'Ivorie
August 11, 1960 - Chad
August 13, 1960 - Central African Republic
August 15, 1960 - Congo, Dem. Rep. of the
August 16, 1960 - Cyprus
August 17, 1960 - Gabon
Sept. 22, 1960 - Mali
October 1, 1960 - Nigeria
November 28, 1960 - Mauritania
April 27, 1961 - Sierra Leone
June 19, 1961 - Kuwait
January 1, 1962 - Samoa
July 1, 1962 - Burundi
July 1, 1962 - Rwanda
July 5, 1962 - Algeria
August 6, 1962 - Jamaica
August 31, 1962 - Trinidad and Tobago
October 9, 1962 - Uganda
December 12, 1963 - Kenya
April 26, 1964 - Tanzania
July 6, 1964 - Malawi
Sept. 21, 1964 - Malta
October 24, 1964 - Zambia
February 18, 1965 - Gambia, The
July 26, 1965 - Maldives
August 9, 1965 - Singapore
May 26, 1966 - Guyana
September 30, 1966 - Botswana
October 4, 1966 - Lesotho
November 30, 1966 - Barbados
January 31, 1968 - Nauru
March 12, 1968 - Mauritius
Sept. 6, 1968 - Swaziland
October 12, 1968 - Equatorial
June 4, 1970 - Tonga
October 10, 1970 - Fiji
March 26, 1971 - Bangladesh
August 15, 1971 - Bahrain
Sept. 3, 1971 - Qatar
November 2, 1971 - United Arab Emirates
July 10, 1973 - Bahamas
Sept. 24, 1973 - Guinea-Bissau
February 7, 1974 - Grenada
June 25, 1975 - Mozambique
July 5, 1975 - Cape Verde
July 6, 1975 - Comoros
July 12, 1975 - Sao Tome and Principe
Sept. 16, 1975 - Papua New Guinea
November 11, 1975 - Angola
November 25, 1975 - Suriname
June 29, 1976 - Seychelles
June 27, 1977 - Djibouti
July 7, 1978 - Solomon Islands
October 1, 1978 - Tuvalu
November 3, 1978 - Dominica
February 22, 1979 - Saint Lucia
July 12, 1979 - Kiribati
October 27, 1979 - Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
April 18, 1980 - Zimbabwe
July 30, 1980 - Vanuatu
January 11, 1981 - Antigua and Barbuda
Sept. 21, 1981 - Belize
Sept. 19, 1983 - Saint Kitts and Nevis
January 1, 1984 - Brunei
October 21, 1986 - Marshall Islands
November 3, 1986 - Micronesia, Federated States of
March 11, 1990 - Lithuania
March 21, 1990 - Namibia
May 22, 1990 - Yemen
April 9, 1991 - Georgia
June 25, 1991 - Croatia
June 25, 1991 - Slovenia
August 21, 1991 - Kyrgyzstan
August 24, 1991 - Russia
August 25, 1991 - Belarus
August 27, 1991 - Moldova
August 30, 1991 - Azerbaijan
Sept. 1, 1991 - Uzbekistan
Sept. 6, 1991 - Latvia
Sept. 8, 1991 - Macedonia
Sept. 9, 1991 - Tajikistan
Sept. 21, 1991 - Armenia
October 27, 1991 - Turkmenistan
November 24, 1991 - Ukraine
December 16, 1991 - Kazakhstan
March 3, 1992 - Bosnia and Herzegovina
January 1, 1993 - Czech Republic
January 1, 1993 - Slovakia
May 24, 1993 - Eritrea
October 1, 1994 - Palau
May 20, 2002 - East Timor
June 3, 2006 - Montenegro
June 5, 2006 - Serbia
February 17, 2008 - Kosovo
July 9, 2011 - South Sudan
August 19 The American Broadcasting Company (ABC) first aired Saturday morning television shows for children on August 19, 1950. One show was called  "Animal Clinic", and featured live animals and veterinarians.

August 24 Operation Magic Carpet concludes transporting 45,000 Yemenite Jews to Israel to avoid them being slaughtered by The Arabs in Yemen. There is a fascinating account of this in Leon Uris' novel "The Haj"

September 4 1st helicopter rescue of American pilot behind enemy lines (Korea)

September 7 Monasteries shut down in Hungary  (due to Communism)

September 16 Viet Minh-offensive against French bases in Vietnam

September 29 Telephone Answering Machine created by Bell Laboratories

October 2  The U.S. and U.N. troops push the North Koreans back almost the Chinese border (Chosan);  Then Mao Tse Tung and China enter the war and over the next 3 years of heavy fighting  push us back to the 38th parallel

October 26 Mother Teresa found her Mission of Charity in Calcutta, India

November 16 Egyptian king Faruk demands departure of all British troops

November 16 U.S. President Truman proclaims emergency crisis caused by communist threat

November 30 US President Truman threatens China with atom bomb

December 3 Paul Harvey begins his national radio broadcast

December 19 Tibet's Dalai Lama flees Chinese invasion

December 30 The French withdraw from Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia which then become independent states and soon fall prey to civil war and strife from the many factions trying to dominate for control.  Genocide, disease, and death become rampant.


Used modified live-virus vaccines to protect swine from hog cholera.

Found that vitamin E prevented yellow-fat disease in mink and pigs.

January 10 U.N. headquarters opens in Manhattan NY

January 28 "La Vie Commence Demain," which depicted artificial insemination and is the 1st X-rated movie, opened in London

May 27 Chinese Communists force Dalai Lama to surrender his army to Beijing

June 30 NAACP begins attack on school segregation and discrimination

July 14 1st color telecast of a sporting event (CBS-horse race)


Spirochetes isolated from cattle rumen.

Parasitic wasps released as biological control against pink bollworm.

January 21 Nehru's Congress party wins general election in India   The British left India in 1947 with serious internal struggles for power between Muslim, Hindu, and other factions. India was broken up into Pakistan (mostly Muslim), and Bengal … part of which was soon to become Bangladesh.  Nehru guided India towards Socialism and tended to be pro communist in international relations.

February 1 General strike against French colonial management in Tunisia

March 10 Military coup by general Fulgencio Batista in Cuba

April 9 Popular uprising in Bolivia

April 30 Mr. Potato Head is 1st toy advertised on television

July 22 Poland adopts Communist-imposed Constitution

September 8 Ernest Hemmingway's "Old Man and Sea" published

September 23 Richard Nixon makes his "Checker's" speech

October 20 Emergency crisis proclaimed in Kenya. 
More commonly known as the "Mau Mau" (which means KILL KILL) and was an uprising of many in the dominate Kikuyu tribe wanting to kick out the British.  Lots of people in the Kikuyu tribe were happy, enjoying the benefits of jobs, schools, medical care, roads, and other infrastructure that came with Bristish Colonial Rule.... and certainly the other tribes in Kenya weren't too keen on being dominated by the Kikuyu.  Unfortunately, the rebels brutally killed or suppressed anyone loyal to the British, butchured many whites living on isolated farms, and fomented a civil war .  Recommended reading about the Mau Mau; Robert Roark's "Something of Value"  I believe this book was banned in the United States for a while as it protrays African Blacks as tribal savages too uncivilized to rule.  In historical hindsight, all I can safely say is that Africa has suffered way too many genocides, famines, brutal dictatorship, and other extreme, man made, disasters.   That being said, things are looking up, and I'm optimistic that more and more African Nations will not only enjoy higher standards of living and personal security, but might well surpass their old colonial masters in the not too distant future.  But in the 1950s, extreme racial discrimination was quickly being replaced by true integration, and US official policy was to support independent movements throughout the world, which of course, in Africa, meant black governments.  (Provided the communists wouldn't gain control.)


Dwight D Eisenhower replaces Harry Truman as President

James Watson and Francis Crick describe double-helical structure of DNA.  The practical development and results of this knowledge, to include stem cell therapy are just starting to become realities today (I'm writing this in 2014) and will likely revolutionize medical practice.  Other possible consequences are rather scary.  As with nuclear energy, I pray that we are very, very careful about what we invent. 
As of 2014, in the veterinary profession, we have much safer vaccines due to DNA technology (known as DNA recombinants), we have 1 commercial DNA test that tells you what breed(s) your dog is, and just recently, we now have the ability to collect and store stem cells from patients and use them to treat joint and other diseaes with amazing results.  The only thing holding is back is cost.

First calves born as a result of embryo transfer from donor to recipient cows.

Discovered that adding aureomycin and vitamin B12 to feed reduced loss of rabbits from enteritis by 75 percent.

Reported first case of advanced natural parthenogenesis in birds; spontaneous development of embryos without normal fertilization.

Josesh Stalin Dies!

March 30 Einstein announces revised unified field theory

March 31 Department of Health, Education and Welfare established

May 29 Edmund Hillary and Tensing Norkay are 1st to reach summit of Everest

July 26 Fidel Castro begins rebellion, the "26th of July Movement," against Fulgenico Batista's regime

July 27 1st insulin isolated by F Banting and C Best in Toronto

July 27 North Korea and United Nations sign armistice

September 5 1st privately operated atomic reactor, Raleigh NC

September 17 1st successful separation of Siamese twins

September 22 Islamic uprising in Indonesia

September 26 U.S. and Spain sign defense treaty  There are now 4 US military bases in Spain.   We made a similar treaty with Greece in October.

September 29 U.S. government gives France $385 million for combat in Indo-China

November 2 Pakistan becomes islamic republic

December 9 General Electric announces all Communist employees will be fired


DEET (N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide) insect repellent developed.

Gas-liquid chromatography used to study flavors and aromas.

Process for making instant potato flakes developed.

Watershed Protection and Flood Prevention Act passed.

Test developed to detect visceral lymphomatosis in live chickens.

Discovered that avian lymphomatosis virus can be present in hens that appear normal and that it is shed in their eggs; showed that a hen injected with virus imparts passive immunity to the chicks.

Vaccines developed to protect chickens from visceral lymphomatosis and infectious bronchitis.

First spray vaccine developed to immunize mink against distemper.

January 13 Miltary rule in Egypt; 318 Mohammedan Brotherhood arrested.  3 months later, Colonel Nasser seizes power and becomes PM of Egypt.  He is pro-Soviet one day and pro Western aid the next.  The survival of Isreal, the Aswan Dam and control of the Suez Canal are major stakes in this dangerous game and war will soon break out.

February 10 Eisenhower warns against U.S. intervention in Vietnam but 2 months later warns of  "domino-effect" in Indo-China

April 5 Elvis Presley records his debut single, "That's All Right"

April 25 Bell labs announces 1st solar battery

April 25 British raid Nairobi Kenya (25,000 Mau Mau suspects arrested)

April 26 Nationwide test of Jonas Salk's anti-polio vaccine begins.  Note:  Jonas Salk had a brother named Herman who was a veterinarian.  Herman met and married fellow veterinary student Sylvia at Cornell.  Click here to read about Herman, Sylvia and other early female veterinarians.

May 7 French surrender to Vietminh after 55-day siege at Dien Bien Phu

June 14 President Eisenhower signs order adding words 'under God' to the Pledge

June 15 Great Britain's 2 biggest steel factory nationalized.  Great Britain, once the greatest power in the world, is on her way to becoming a socialist country.  Now it seems that it may soon become a Muslim country due to demographics and many other factors.

June 27 CIA supports rebels that overthrow elected government of Guatemala

July 12 President Eisenhower put forward a plan for an interstate highway system

August 24 Eisenhower signs Communist Control Act, outlawing the Communist Party

September 27 School integration begins in Washington D.C. and Baltimore Md public schools

September 30 Nautilus, 1st atomic-powered vessel (sub), commissioned by the Navy

October 1 Britian forced to give up Nigeria as a colony

October 10 Ho Chi Minh enters Hanoi after French troops pull out.  Now the deadly civil wars will really begin that will soon draw in the Americans who will try to stop the Chinese sponsored communists from taking over SouthEast Asia, even though this means supporting a badly corrupt government in South Viet Nam.  Much to our surprise, this wasn't as easy as we thought it would be.  What a mess.

October 27 President Eisenhower offers aid to South Vietnam President Ngo Dinh Diem

October 31 Algerian Revolution against French begins
Recommended book: "Sirocco: A French Girl Comes of Age
in War-Torn Algeria" by Danielle A. Dahl who now lives in
Seneca, S.C. and is a fascinating client at our veterinary practice.

November 22 Humane Society forms

November 24 France sends 20,000 soldiers to Algeria


Future veterinarian Roger Ross is born to parents recently immigrated from Canada.  Goes on to write this website, saves thousands of animals on a daily basis, and dazzles women with his good looks.  (one of the 3 attributes is true, although I'm working as hard as I can on saving at least a few animals on a daily basis)

Screwworm fly eradicated from Curacao using sterile-fly mating disruption; eradicated from Florida in 1958.

Vaccines become available dehydrated, much improving shelf life and expense.

February 13 Israel acquires 4 of 7 Dead Sea scrolls

March 24 1st seagoing oil drill rig placed in service

March 24 British Army patrols withdraw from Belfast after 20 years

April 15 Ray Kroc starts McDonald's chain of fast food restaurants in Illinois

April 30 Imperial Bank of India nationalized

May 14 Warsaw Pact is signed by the Soviet Union, Albania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, East Germany, Hungary, Poland and Romania

May 23 Presbyterian Church begins accepting women ministers

May 31 Supreme Court orders school integration "with all deliberate speed"

June 7 India premier Nehru visit U.S.S.R.

June 10 1st separation of virus into component parts reported

June 23 Walt Disney's "Lady and the Tramp" released

June 30 "Johnny Carson Show," debuts on CBS-TV

July 17 Disneyland opens its doors in rural Orange County

July 19 Yarkon Water Project opens to supply water to Negev desert in Israel

August 20 Hundreds killed in anti-French rioting in Morocco and Algeria

September 19 Argentine president Juan Peron, resigns and flees

October 25 Tappan sells 1st microwave oven

December 5 Historic bus boycott begins in Montgomery Alabama by Rosa Parks

War starts over the Suez Canal


Aureomycin-sulfamethazine treatment developed to prevent mortality of chicks with cecal coccidiosis.

Test for Aleutian disease of mink devised. (Fur coats and mink farms were big business before the 1970s.  Remember that it was European demand for fur that motivated much of the exploration of Canada, the Missisippi Valley, and Alaska in the 17 and 18th centuries.  Thankfully attitudes and consciousness about animal cruelty have put most of these farms out of business)

January 2 Poujadists/communists win French parliamentary elections

January 16 Egyptian President Nasser pledges to reconquer Palestine

February 25 Khrushchev denounces Stalin at 20th Soviet Party Conference

February 27 Female suffrage in Egypt (I hope this right isn't taken away as it appears it might)

March 2 Morocco tears up the Treaty of Fez, declares independence from France

March 20 Tunisia gains independence from France

March 23 Sudan becomes independent

March 27 U.S. seizes U.S. communist newspaper "Daily Worker"

April 23 U.S. Supreme Court ends race segregation on buses

April 28 Last French troop leave Vietnam

May 28 Eisenhower signs farm bill allows government to store agricultural surplus

June 13 After 72 years, Britain gives up Suez Canal to Egyptian control

July 19 U.S. refuses to lend Egypt money to build Aswan Dam

July 25 Jordan attacks United Nations Palestine force

July 26 Egypt seizes Suez Canal

August 7 British government sends 3 aircraft carriers to Egypt

October 6 Dr. Albert Sabin dievelops oral polio vaccine

October 17 England's 1st large scale nuclear power station opens

October 23 Revolt against Stalinist policies begins in Hungary
200,000 Soviet troops invade Hungary and crush the revolt and threatens to bomb Budapest.  Hungary cried for help from the West but we just didn't have the fortitude.  For one thing, we were just recovering from the Korean War, and the world was on the brink of another World War over The Middle East and SouthEast Asia.  These were very dangerous times.

October 29 Israeli paratroopers drop into Sinai to open Straits of Tiran   
Israel captures Egyptian militay post at El-Thamad   Isreal would soon capture Gaza and Sheham and reach the eastern banks of The Suez Canal.  That tiny Isreal could do this must be a miracle from God.  Egypt has a huge military in comparison, has modern weaponry supplied by the Soviets, and just months earlier had boasted how they would kill every single Jew.

November 2 Hungary appeals for United Nations assistance against Soviet invasion

November 5 Israel liberates Sharm-el-Sheikh, reopening Gulf of Aqaba

November 8 U.N. demands U.S.S.R. leave Hungary.  (Like that made a difference.)

December 11 Anti-Russian demonstrations in Stettin and Wroclaw Poland

December 18 Japan admitted to UN


Humane Slaughter Act passed.

Poultry Inspection Act authorized compulsory Federal inspection of poultry sold in interstate commerce.

Discovered interferon, an antiviral protein produced by the body to fight viral infections.

Slow virus proposed as cause of kuru; now known as a human spongiform encephalopathy disease.  Also known as mad cow disease

Virus that causes foot-and-mouth disease purified, isolated, and photographed.

Discovered that zinc is effective in treating swine parakeratosis.

Laser invented.

January 5 Eisenhower asks Congress to send troops to the Mid East

January 13 Wham-O Company produces the 1st Frisbee

January 25 FBI arrests Jack and Myra Sobel, charged with spying for U.S.S.R.

February 17 Suez Canal reopens

March 6 Ghana (formerly Gold Coast) declares independence from U.K.

March 23 U.S. Army sells last homing pigeons

March 25 Treaty of Rome establishes European Economic Community (Common Market)

May 15 18,000 people at Madison Square Garden-Billy Graham launched a crusade

May 24 Anti American riots breakout in Taipei, Taiwan

May 29 Algerian rebels kill 336 collaborators (what this means is any moderates who wanted a government not dominated by Muslim radicals)  Note: Algeria intrigues me in that today (2014) much of Algeria has a high standard of living (largely due to oil wealth and other natural resources) and a fairly stable economy consisting of productive farms, businesses, and factories. It's one of the countries that have done well since becoming independent from the French.  They have nuclear power, good schools and universities, a huge military, and Algiers is a big modern city with a beautiful metro system.  This is all wonderful.  But what intrigues me is that the culture is strongly Muslim with the usual subordination of women.... and yet apparently more than 50% of doctors, veterinarians, and other professional are now female. 

July 12 U.S. Surgeon Gen Leroy Burney connects smoking with lung cancer

September 9 President Eisenhower signs 1st civil rights bill since Reconstruction

September 14 U.N. resolution deplores and condemns U.S.S.R. invasion of Hungary but doesn’t do squat

October 4 U.S.S.R. launches Sputnik I, 1st artificial Earth satellite

October 30 Soviet Union launches, Sputnik II, carrying a dog named Laika

December 6 1st U.S. attempt to launch a satellite fails - Vanguard rocket blows up


Food Additives Amendment established.

January 8 Cuban revolutionary forces capture Havana

January 13 9,000 scientists of 43 nations petition United Nations for nuclear test ban

February 21 Egypt-Syria as UAR elect Nasser president with 99.9 percent of the vote

March 8 William Faulkner says U.S. school degenerated to become babysitters   They have gotten a lot worse since then.  Most attempts at improvement are blocked by the teachers unions.

April 14 Sputnik 2 (with dog Laika) burns up in atmosphere

April 20 Morocco demands departure of Spanish troops

May 23 Mao Tse tung start "Great leap forward" movement in China . 
14-43 Million killed in this great leap forward

June 6 Premier Charles de Gaulle says Algeria will always be French but he knew he was lying as he was already making arrangements to pull out and leave the Christian natives and French settlers who had been there for over a hundred years to their fate of Muslim slaughter.

June 11 U.N. Security council sends observers to Lebanon

July 6 Alaska becomes 49th state

July 14 Saddam Hussein and Iraqi army overthrows the monarchy

July 15 President Eisenhower sends U.S. troops to Lebanon; they stay 3 months

July 29 President Eisenhower signs NASA and Space Act of 1958

September 28 Guinea votes for independence from France

October 24 U.S.S.R. lends Egypt 400 million rubles to build Aswan Dam

November 1959:  Mali, Senegal, Chad, Congo, Mauritania, and Niger all  gain independence or become autonomous states "within the French Community" The French Franc is soon devalued.

December 31 Cuban dictator Batista flees and Cuba becomes a communist state.  France... partly because of de Gaulle's resentment and hatred of Americans for snubbing him in World War ll ... would soon play a big role in allowing Cuba to become a Soviet nuclear missle base.
There is a great thriller novel about this written by Leon Uris called "Topaz"


Food for Peace Program inaugurated.

Shipping fever virus isolated.

Automatic feed handling for poultry from bulk storage bins to feeders developed.

January 25 Pope John XXIII proclaims 2nd Vatican council

February 1 Texas Instruments requests patent of IC (Integrated Circuit)

February 19 Britain, Turkey and Greece sign agreement granting Cyprus independence

March 9 Barbie, the popular girls' doll, debuted, over 800 million sold

March 17 Dalai Lama flees Tibet for India

April 13 Vatican edict forbids Roman Catholics for voting for communists

April 26 Cuba invades Panama

May 28 Monkeys Able and Baker zoom 300 mi (500 km) into space on Jupiter missile, became 1st animals retrieved from a space mission
By the way, several American Veterinarians have gone up into space so far.  There is a picture of one of them in the column to your left.

August 21 Hawaii becomes 50th U.S. state

September 11 Congress passes a bill authorizing food stamps for poor Americans

September 12 "Bonanza" premieres on NBC-TV

September 19 Nikita Khrushchev is denied access to Disneyland

October 23 Chinese troops move into India

October 31 Lee Harvey Oswald announces in Moscow he will never return to US

December 1 The 1st color photograph of Earth received from outer space

On Other Pages

Introduction to the History of Veterinary Medicine

Veterinary Medicine before 1800












Veterinary History: The 2000's   

Women & Minorities in Veterinary Medicine 

The interesting battle against Hoof and Mouth Disease on the Mexican Border,   
Black Leg Disease, and Anthrax

A short history of Biological Warfare

Wars that started over PIGS

History of Antibiotics including the critical role played by the Pfizer Company

A little history about some milestones in treating heart disease

Veterinary History of South Carolina

A history of the Pet Food Industry

On Our Other Pages
(not about History)


Why some vets are so expensive

Abscesses The treatment of wounds, lacerations etc

Arthritis, Lameness, Joint and Bone Problems

Behavior Issues & Treatment


Bladder & Kidney Problems Infections, Stones, Crystals, Incontinence

Blood Disorders; Strokes, Vascular Diseases, Anemias, DVT, DIC, Blood Parasites, Rat Poison, Bleeding disorders etc

Cancer; Masses, Lumps and Bumps.  Surgical Treatment of Masses

Cats: Fun or interesting stuff about cats and a discussion about the diseases common in our feline companions to include Leukemia, Feline AIDS, & Cat Scratch Fever.

Cats that just aren't feeling well

Dentistry Discussion about the great importance of gum health and Oral Hygiene.

About the diagnosis and treatment of this very common problem in both cats and dogs

Dogs:  a hodge podge page of stuff about dogs.

Ear Problems
How I treat ear mites, ear allergies, aural hematomas, and ear infections.  This is my forte.

Eye Problems  and Ophthalmic Diseases Including:
Cataracts, Corneal Ulcers, Ingrown Lashes, Disautomia, Retinal problems, and Excessive Tearing

Exotics:  Pocket Pets, Rabbits, Hamsters and other little creatures

Heart disease; Cardiac diseases, vascular diseases, Stroke, heartworm treatment and prevention

History of Veterinary Medicine; lots of interesting stuff    

History of the Discovery of Antibiotics

The Human-Animal Bond
Comments & Stories about this topic close to my heart

Infectious Diseases  Colds, Distemper, Parvo, Lepto, Bruceellosis, Panleukopenia, Feline AIDS, Leukemia, Hepatitis, Kennel Cough, Ringworm, Rabies, FIP, Canine Herpes, Toxic Shock Syndrome, & More

Why I like and recommend Pet Insurance

Intestinal problems:diarrhea, constipation, torsion, indigestion, and gas.  Parvo, Dysentery

Kidney Diseases

Lab Tests; what they tell us

Liver Diseases     

Medications/Pharmacy Page

Metabolic Diseases: Diabetes, Thyroid Disease, Cushing's, Addison's, Pancreatitis, obesity as a disease

Neural Problems and Diseases: Epilepsy, Rabies, Distemper, FIP, Paralysis, Tetanus, Seizures, Disc Disease, Toxoplasmosis & others

Nutrition & Diet: General information
Including a surprise; who makes the diet your pet is eating?

Nutrition: Therapeutic Prescription Diets used to Treat Diseases To Include:
Diabetes, Diseases of the Gastro-Intestinal Tract, Heart Disease, Joint Diseases, Skin problems, Weight problems, Urinary Tract problems, and Kidney Disease.

Parasite Problems; Fleas, Ticks, Heartworms, Intestinal Worms, Mosquitos, Lice, Mites, and other welfare recipients

Poisons  Snakes, Insects, household chemicals, plants, and foods that might poison your pet

Discussion about problems related to the reproductive tract such as uterine infections, False Pregnancy, lack of milk, Infection of the mammary glands and trouble giving birth.  But also fun stuff like new born care. Aso about undescended testicles.

Respiratory Diseases

Senior Pet Page: Geriatric Medicine

Skeletal-Muscular Problems Arthritis, Fractures, ACL, Ligament Injuries, Disc Disease, Pannus, and many other problems of the bones, muscles, tendons, and ligaments

Skin Problems: allergies, rashes, bacterial infections, and itching. Hair Loss, Yeast Infections, Hormonal Problems

Surgery: Spays, Castrations, Testicle Recipes, Soft Tissue Surgery, Hard Tissue Surgery (Bones), C- Sections, Declawing, Tumor Removal and Cancer Surgery

Wounds, punctures, injuries, and abscesses

Urinary Tract Diseases and Problems

Vaccine and other preventive health recommendations

WildLife Page:  Taking care of baby bunnies, squirrels, and birds.  A very funny story about beavers, and other misc information

Zoonotics: Diseases People get from Pets, Worms & other Parasites People get from Pets.

On Our Other Sites

About  Our No Kill Shelter   

About Our  Veterinary Clinic
There were women veterinarians in the United States as early as 1910.  Well one anyways.  But by the 1950s women in veterinary school were becoming a little more common and now they predominate.
There is a short synopsis of the gender situation in our profession below.
But if you're interested, I've devoted a separate page about women (and minorities) in veterinary medicine and another page with some interesting biographies of early women vets.

Until very recently, veterinary medicine was a male dominated profession. In 1930, there were only 30 women veterinary graduates in the U.S. In 1986, there were approximately 7,000, 16% of the total active veterinary work force.

In 1987, 48% U.S. veterinary medical graduates of that year, 55% of all U.S. veterinary students and 57% of the students admitted to U.S. veterinary medical colleges, were women.

If this trend continues, veterinary medicine soon will become a female dominated profession. The proportion of female graduates of veterinary medical colleges exceeds that of other health professions with the exception of pharmacy and nursing.

Surveys of working women veterinarians reveal that there is a tendency for more women to work parttime than men, that they are paid lower salaries, and that they have more difficulty integrating their professional and personal lives than do male veterinarians.

Work force data suggests that women veterinary practitioners participate in professional activities at two thirds the level of participation of men.

AVMA data shows that women veterinarians constituted 21% of the small animal practice and 22% of the college and university veterinary work forces, but only 6% to 7% of the large animal practice and 8% of the state and federal government work forces in 1986.

The proportion of women in the national veterinary work force will expand rapidly if the present dominance of women among veterinary graduates is maintained.

It should be noted that in the U.S.S.R for many years there have been more women than men veterinarians.
There are few reliable indicators of what the longterm implications are of the rapid change in gender composition of the veterinary medical profession. It is known, however, that women have different outlooks than men on many matters, including job satisfaction and job opportunity.

Women on the average are believed to be more caring, nurturing of patients, and more sensitive to the anxieties and emotional needs of clients, than are men.

These attributes may have contributed to the attraction of veterinary medicine to women as a career. Veterinary medical education has become increasingly concerned with clinical practice and has not projected in its student recruitment efforts as much concern for animal production, technological or public sector opportunities, in the profession.

Thus, the changing nature of the colleges themselves may inadvertently have contributed to the increased proportion of women to men applicants. Gender probably will influence career choice after broadening the profession as visualized in this report.

Women also are thought to be less entreoreneurial than graduation, which may constrain or slow men and willing to work with less autonomy.   If this thesis is true, the presence of more women in the practicing profession would likely modify the strong tendency of veterinarians for independence and to work for themselves in small groups. This might have a very positive effect on improving the efficiency of the veterinary delivery system.

In other professions, women have tended to be less inclined to enter research careers or in highly technological aspects of the profession as contrasted to those activities that are more people oriented.

In pharmacy a profession which also is undergoing a gender change even greater than veterinary medicine, studies reveal that graduates of the past five years function in the profession the same as do men graduates of the same period. For example, 25% of these women pharmacists are in management ranks, the same proportion as men who started working in the same period. Thus women in this group had been promoted at the same rate as men. When women pharmacists become managers, 75% have other pharmacists reporting to them, the same percentage as men. The number of reportees was 2.3 for women and 2.1 for men. Women and men pharmacists also worked in the same size and kinds of organizations. Women pharmacists who started work in the last ten years were paid on the average 90% as much per year as were men. However, when these data were converted to an hourly rate, the rate of pay for men and women pharmacists was identical.

Women pharmacists have already attained equal recognition and equal rewards in their profession.
It generally is believed that the major impact of the women's movement has already been felt by the professions and that the proportion of men to women entering the health professions will stabilize at near the current level. It also is believed that generational changes in expectations of both men and women soon will eliminate inequalities in salary, working conditions and professional advancement which currently exist between men and women professionals.

The change in the gender of the veterinary profession has been rapid and marked, and is one of the most important internal changes confronting the profession.

The veterinary medical profession should give high priority to funding high quality social science research designed to determine what impact the gender change will have on the ability of the veterinary profession to fulfill society's needs. It has the potential for having too great an impact on the profession and its ability to serve society to be left undone.

As a result of pressure from the European “Ethic Policy” group in the late 1930’s, the Dutch East Indies Government decreed that a system of higher education in Indonesia  be established.

Bogor was considered very appropriate location for higher  agricultural education, and the Faculty of Agriculture (Facultiet der Landbouw-wetenschappen) was established under the University of Indonesia on September 1,1940.

In  1946, the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine (Facultreit der Diergeneeskunde) was estbalished. Until the late 1950’s, these Faculties were operated under Dutch governance employing Dutch faculty members.

Following this period, “Indonesianization” of the Dutch establishment took place and all Dutch faculty members went back to the Netherlands.

The gaps created were filled temporarily by faculty members from the University of Kentucky, USA.

This was the start of US Government assistance in preparing the two Faculties in higher agricultural education institution building.

At the same time hundreds of the faculty members were sent to the US for advanced training.

Cigarette advertising is no longer allowed but ads like the one above were common in the 1950s
Modern day Algiers, capital and port city of Algeria.  Comments to your right.
Veterinarian, Dr. Richard Linnehan, whose career included stints at the Baltimore Zoo and the Naval Ocean Systems Center before joining NASA,

"Growing up, I always wanted to be a pilot and a veterinarian,"

From private practice, to exotic veterinary medicine, to military veterinary medicine, to life science research in a microgravity setting, Linnehan's long and illustrious career has touched many sides of veterinary medicine.

Linnehan earned his doctor of veterinary medicine at The Ohio State University in 1985.

After earning his veterinary degree and entering private practice, Linnehan decided to pursue a joint two-year internship at the Baltimore Zoo and Johns Hopkins University, where he studied zoo animal medicine and comparative pathology.

"Veterinary medicine is about a lot more than large animals, small animals, and research," he said. "You've got to be a jack of all trades, you've got to be into everything, and you've got to put it all together."

In 1989, Linnehan was commissioned as a captain in the U.S. Army Veterinary Corps and served at the Naval Ocean Systems Center in San Diego, Calif., as chief clinical veterinarian for the U.S. Navy's Marine Mammal Program. There, he oversaw the U.S. Navy's veterinary programs for whales, dolphins, and seals.

In 1992, Linnehan turned his attention from the depths of the sea to the stars. He applied for and was accepted into NASA's astronaut candidate training program that year.

"Training is an arduous process," said Linnehan, who showed images of his underwater training in a spacesuit at a NASA facility. "For every hour in space, you probably spend about 10 hours in the pool."

Four years later, Linnehan got his first gig aboard the Space Shuttle Columbia. The 17-day flight was not only the longest space shuttle mission at the time, but also the first to combine a full schedule of microgravity studies and a comprehensive life sciences payload.

"Just like in veterinary medicine, you are trained extensively, and once you are in space, your training kicks in," he said.

Linnehan took two other trips aboard Columbia, conducting experiments on the effects of microgravity on the nervous system in 1998 and helping upgrade the Hubble Space Telescope in 2002.
He was also part of the crew that delivered new components to the International Space Station during a fourth space flight on board the Endeavour.

Linnehan is not the only astronaut with a background in veterinary medicine. NASA has sent several veterinarians — who are the only professionals trained in cross-species medicine — into space.
Website Directory

Home    The Human-Animal Bond     The History of Veterinary Medicine    About our No Kill Shelter     The FoxNest Veterinary Hospital     

"What To Expect When You Go To The Vet"
if your pet should have a problem with ...

Abscesses, wounds, and injuries

Arthritis, Lameness, Fractures, and Ligament Injuries
To include Femoral Head Removal, Hip Dysplasia, Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injuries, Panosteitis, Radiographic Demonstrations, Disc Disease, and Bone Surgery

Bladder, Urinary Tract, & Kidney Problems

Blood Diseases, Anemias etc
Strokes, Vascular Diseases, Anemias, DVT, DIC, Blood Parasites, Rat Poison, & Bleeding disorders

Cancer, Masses, Lumps and Bumps

Cardiology  Heart disease in Cats, Cardiac Hypertrophy, Valvular disease, Cardiac Insufficiency, Congestive Heart Failure, Heartworm Disease, and a little history about the milestones in treating heart disease

Cats: general information page and directory of diseases and problems specific to cats including vaccine recommendations, leukemia, feline viral infections, feline upper respiratory disease and cats that just aren't feeling well.

Dentistry and problems of the mouth and throat

Dermatology: Skin problems including allergies, rashes, bacterial infections, and itching. Hair Loss, Yeast Infections, Hormonal Problems


Ear Infections and Other Ear Problems

Eye Problems  and Ophthalmic Diseases

Exotics:  Pocket Pets, Rabbits, Hamsters etc

Fleas, Ticks, and other parasite problems

Heart disease; Cardiac diseases, vascular diseases, stroke, & heartworms

Hormone Diseases: Diabetes, Thyroid Disease, Cushing's Disease or Hypercortisolism, Addison's disease or Hypocortisolism, Pancreatitis, obesity as a disease

Infectious Diseases  Colds, Distemper, Parvo, Leptospirosis, Bruceellosis, Panleukopenia, Feline AIDS, Leukemia, Hepatitis, Kennel Cough, Ringworm, Rabies, FIP, Canine Herpes, Toxic Shock Syndrome, & More

Intestinal problems: diarrhea, constipation, torsion, indigestion, and gas. Also pancreatitis, vomiting, esophagitis, colitis, parvo and other types of dysentery

Kidney Disease

Liver Diseases     

Metabolic Diseases: Diabetes, Thyroid Disease, Cushing's Disease or Hypercortisolism, Addison's disease or Hypocortisolism, Pancreatitis, obesity as a disease

Neural Problems and Diseases: Epilepsy, Rabies, Distemper, FIP, Paralysis, Tetanus, Seizures, Disc Disease, Toxoplasmosis & others

Obesity; new information and about Pfizer's new FDA approved treatment


Parasite Problems Fleas, Ticks, Heartworms, Intestinal Worms, Mosquitos, Lice, Mites, and other welfare recipients

Poisons  Snakes, Insects, household chemicals, plants, and foods that might poison your pet

Respiratory Diseases

Senior Pet Page: Geriatric Medicine

Skeletal-Muscular Problems Arthritis, Fractures, ACL, Ligament Injuries, Disc Disease, Pannus, and many other problems of the bones, muscles, tendons, and ligaments

Skin Problems: allergies, rashes, bacterial infections, and itching. Hair Loss, Yeast Infections, Hormonal Problems

Surgery: Spays, Castrations, Testicle Recipes, Soft Tissue Surgery, Hard Tissue Surgery (Bones), C- Sections, Declawing, Tumor Removal and Cancer Surgery

Wounds, punctures, injuries, and abscesses

Urinary Tract Diseases and Problems

Other Topics on This Site

The Human-Animal Bond

History of Veterinary Medicine; lots of interesting stuff    

Zoonotics: Diseases, worms, and parasites people get from pets.

Lab Tests and what they tell us

Medications/Pharmacy Page

Nutrition & Diets
Includes information about Prescription diets used to treat disease, and a discussion about the pet food industry

Reproduction, breeding, & rearing information
Includes information about feline and canine heat or estrus, breeding, C-Sections, pyometra or Infected Uterus, dystocia, no milk, mastitis, & brucellosis
Also newborn care, undescended testicles, and alternative to spaying and castration

Vaccine and other preventive health recommendations

WildLife Page:  Taking care of baby bunnies, squirrels, and birds.  A very funny story about beavers, and other misc information

Our Dog Page:  a directory of problems of concern in dogs including parvovirus, distemper, canine herpes, and other diseases

Veterinary Pet Insurance