History of Veterinary Medicine

The 1990's

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There are links to our other history pages below on your left and a complete directory of links at the bottom of the page  

Veterinary timeline of the1990s
with a few general events thrown in for context
as well as some major events related to agriculture or medicine
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"What To Expect When You Go To The Vet"
if your pet should have a problem with ...

Abscesses, wounds, and injuries

Arthritis, Lameness, Fractures, and Ligament Injuries
To include Femoral Head Removal, Hip Dysplasia, Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injuries, Panosteitis, Radiographic Demonstrations, Disc Disease, and Bone Surgery

Bladder, Urinary Tract, & Kidney Problems

Blood Diseases, Anemias etc
Strokes, Vascular Diseases, Anemias, DVT, DIC, Blood Parasites, Rat Poison, & Bleeding disorders

Cancer, Masses, Lumps and Bumps

Cardiology  Heart disease in Cats, Cardiac Hypertrophy, Valvular disease, Cardiac Insufficiency, Congestive Heart Failure, Heartworm Disease, and a little history about the milestones in treating heart disease

Cats: general information page and directory of diseases and problems specific to cats including vaccine recommendations, leukemia, feline viral infections, feline upper respiratory disease and cats that just aren't feeling well.

Dentistry and problems of the mouth and throat

Dermatology: Skin problems including allergies, rashes, bacterial infections, and itching. Hair Loss, Yeast Infections, Hormonal Problems


Ear Infections and Other Ear Problems

Eye Problems  and Ophthalmic Diseases

Exotics:  Pocket Pets, Rabbits, Hamsters etc

Fleas, Ticks, and other parasite problems

Heart disease; Cardiac diseases, vascular diseases, stroke, & heartworms

Hormone Diseases: Diabetes, Thyroid Disease, Cushing's Disease or Hypercortisolism, Addison's disease or Hypocortisolism, Pancreatitis, obesity as a disease

Infectious Diseases  Colds, Distemper, Parvo, Leptospirosis, Bruceellosis, Panleukopenia, Feline AIDS, Leukemia, Hepatitis, Kennel Cough, Ringworm, Rabies, FIP, Canine Herpes, Toxic Shock Syndrome, & More

Intestinal problems: diarrhea, constipation, torsion, indigestion, and gas. Also pancreatitis, vomiting, esophagitis, colitis, parvo and other types of dysentery

Kidney Disease

Liver Diseases     

Metabolic Diseases: Diabetes, Thyroid Disease, Cushing's Disease or Hypercortisolism, Addison's disease or Hypocortisolism, Pancreatitis, obesity as a disease

Neural Problems and Diseases: Epilepsy, Rabies, Distemper, FIP, Paralysis, Tetanus, Seizures, Disc Disease, Toxoplasmosis & others

Obesity; new information and about Pfizer's new FDA approved treatment


Parasite Problems Fleas, Ticks, Heartworms, Intestinal Worms, Mosquitos, Lice, Mites, and other welfare recipients

Poisons  Snakes, Insects, household chemicals, plants, and foods that might poison your pet

Respiratory Diseases

Senior Pet Page: Geriatric Medicine

Skeletal-Muscular Problems Arthritis, Fractures, ACL, Ligament Injuries, Disc Disease, Pannus, and many other problems of the bones, muscles, tendons, and ligaments

Skin Problems: allergies, rashes, bacterial infections, and itching. Hair Loss, Yeast Infections, Hormonal Problems

Surgery: Spays, Castrations, Testicle Recipes, Soft Tissue Surgery, Hard Tissue Surgery (Bones), C- Sections, Declawing, Tumor Removal and Cancer Surgery

Wounds, punctures, injuries, and abscesses

Urinary Tract Diseases and Problems

Other Topics on This Site

The Human-Animal Bond

History of Veterinary Medicine; lots of interesting stuff    

Zoonotics: Diseases, worms, and parasites people get from pets.

Lab Tests and what they tell us

Medications/Pharmacy Page

Nutrition & Diets
Includes information about Prescription diets used to treat disease, and a discussion about the pet food industry

Reproduction, breeding, & rearing information
Includes information about feline and canine heat or estrus, breeding, C-Sections, pyometra or Infected Uterus, dystocia, no milk, mastitis, & brucellosis
Also newborn care, undescended testicles, and alternative to spaying and castration

Vaccine and other preventive health recommendations

WildLife Page:  Taking care of baby bunnies, squirrels, and birds.  A very funny story about beavers, and other misc information

Our Dog Page:  a directory of problems of concern in dogs including parvovirus, distemper, canine herpes, and other diseases

Veterinary Pet Insurance

Population:  281,421,906 (2000 Census) 
Unemployment:  5.8 million, or 4.2% (Sept 99) 
National Debt:  $5,413.l Million (1997) 
Average Salary:  $13.37/hr (1999) 
Teacher's Salary: $39,347 (1998) 
Minimum Wage:  $5.15/hr (1997) 
Life Expectancy: Male 73.1 Female 79.1(1997)
Auto Deaths:  49,772 (1997)

President George H Bush ( 1988 - 1992)
President and Mrs. Bill Clinton (1992-2001).

The World Wide Web was born in 1992, changing the way we communicate

In the 1990's the United States played the role of world policeman, sometimes alone but more often in alliances.

The decade began with Sadam Husein's invasion of Kuwait and the resultant Gulf War.

In 1993 President Clinton fought a very short and unsuccessful war in Somalia, as the television images of starving children led to an attempt to oust warlord, General Adid.

By September, 1994, the U.S. was once again sending troops to a foreign country to overthrow a military dictatorship, this time in Haiti. 

In 1996 about 20,000 American troops were deployed to Bosnia as part of a NATO peace keeping force.

In late March 1999, the U.S. joined NATO in air strikes against Yugoslavia in an effort to halt the Yugoslavian government's policy of ethnic cleansing in its province of Kosovo.

The decade was to end much as it began with U.S. forces deployed in many countries, and the U.S. playing arbitrator, enforcer, and peace keeper throughout the world.

The 90s have been called the Merger Decade. On the domestic front some big issues were health care,  social security reform, and gun control - none of which have been resolved since.  

Violence and sex scandals dominated the media starting with the Tailhook affair in which Navy and Marine Corps fliers were accused of sexually abusing 26 women. 

President Clinton kept the gossip flowing as several women accused him of sexual misconduct.  The ten years ended with this president  narrowly surviving a trial to remove him from office for perjury and obstruction of justice. 

In 1992 South-Central Los Angeles rioted after four white policemen were acquitted of video-taped assault charges for beating a black motorist, Rodney King. 

1993 brought terrorism to the American shores as a bomb was detonated in the garage beneath the World Trade Center. 

That same month of February saw four agents of the U.S. Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms killed during an unsuccessful raid on the Branch Davidian cult compound in Waco, Texas led by David Koresh. 

Americans were glued to their TV sets in 1995 as the football hero, O.J. Simpson, was tried for the murder of his ex-wife, Nicole, and her male friend, Ron Goldman.  This trial pointed out the continued racial division in the country as most blacks applauded the not guilty verdict while most whites thought an obviously guilty man had gotten away with murder. 

The shock of the bombing of the Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building in Oklahoma City on April 19,1995, was compounded by the revelation that the perpetrators were not foreign terrorists but were U.S. citizens led by a U.S. Army veteran, and athesist Timothy McVeigh. 

In the months between February 1996 and April 1999 there were at least fourteen incidents of school shootings with the most lethal being on April 20, 1999 when 14 students and 1 teacher were killed and  23 wounded at Columbine High School in Littleton, Colorado.

There was good news, too.  The booming economy led to record low unemployment.  Minimum wage was increased to $5.15 an hour.  The stock market reached an all time high as individuals learned to buy and trade via the internet.  Americans enjoyed the country's affluence by traveling more (up 40% since 1986), by reveling in sporting events such as the Atlanta Summer Olympics -1996, and by "consuming" as never before.  

America faced the new millennium with an open, diversified society, a functioning democracy, a healthy economy, and the means and will, hopefully, to face and overcome its problems.

Ritalin became the drug of choice for schools and parents alike as more students were labeled ADD or ADHD. 

The Americans With Disabilities Act, effective in July, 1990, began protecting the rights of all Americans with physical or mental disabilities.  

In January, 1994, the North American Free Trade Agreement was intended to eliminate barriers to trade between neighboring countries, particularly Mexico and Canada.

In 1994, Republicans won a majority in Congress for the first time in forty years.  Part of the reason for the party's success was a ten point plan called the Contract with America which outlined  a promise to reshape government by decentralizing federal authority, giving states and local government more control over taxes, and social programs, and by improving the way government did business.  I wish it had succeeded.

Welfare reform, began in 1988 with the federal Family Support Act which initiated changes such as directing all states to phase in comprehensive welfare-to-work programs.

In March, 1996, a bill was passed giving the president line item veto authority allowing the president to veto specific parts of a spending bill while approving the rest, thus increasing presidential power.  The bill was declared unconstitutional by the Supreme Court in June 1998.

On Other Pages

Introduction to the History of Veterinary Medicine

Veterinary Medicine before 1800











Veterinary History: The 2000's  

Women and minorities in Veterinary Medicine

Fascinating profiles of some early women veterinarians in the United States

The interesting battle against Hoof and Mouth Disease on the Mexican Border,   
Black Leg Disease, and Anthrax

A short history of Biological Warfare

Wars that started over PIGS

History of Antibiotics including the critical role played by the Pfizer Company

A little history about some milestones in treating heart disease

Veterinary History of South Carolina

A history of the Pet Food Industry

10 million people worldwide estimated to be HIV-positive, including 1 million in U.S.; more than 36,000 Americans have died of AIDS since the late 1970s

Japan ends routine fingerprinting of all adult ethnic Koreans
January 11 Soviets storm buildings in Vilnius to block Lithuania independence
January 12 U.S. Congress gives George H Bush authority to wage war against Iraq

January 15 UN's deadline for Iraq to withdraw from Kuwait (they don't)
January 17 Iraq fires 8 Scud missiles on Israel
January 17 Operation Desert Storm begins - U.S. led allies vs Iraq
January 20 US Patriot missiles begins shooting down Iraqi missiles

January 23 World's largest oil spill, caused by embattled Iraqi forces in Kuwait
January 28 Dictator Siad Barre flees Somalia ending 22 year rule
February 1 President F. W. de Klerk, says he would repeal all apartheid laws

February 5 Michigan court bars Dr. Jack Kevorkian from assisting in suicides
February 25 U.S., barracks in Dhahran Saudi Arabia, hit by scud missile, kills 28
February 27 6 week Gulf War ends after Iraqi troops retreated and Kuwait is liberated
March 3 Latvia and Estonia vote to become independent of the U.S.S.R.
March 7 Iraq continues to explode oil fields in Kuwait

March 13 Exxon pays $1-billion dollars in fines and cleanup of Valdez oil spill  Many veterinarians involved in animal rescue and rehab

Outbreak of ebola virus in Virginia.  The picture above is of veterinarians that work for the U.S. Veterinary Medicine Division team from US Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases.

Africanized honeybees entered the U.S.
It was in the 1990's that numerous feral cat trap-neuter-vaccinate-and release programs were launched and high volume spay/neuter programs started to become common. Our own practice got involved in these programs in the early 1990's and we've stayed involved ever since.  I hope it's made a difference.
The lady in the picture above is being tested for HIV virus at a clinic in Uganda.  AIDs will become the world's number 1 killer in the 1990's with the vast majority of cases being in Africa.  Unfortunately it is often the women and young children that suffer most.
The 1990's was the decade, thanks in part to President Regan, of the fall of the Soviet Union and the freeing of millions of people in the Warsaw block countries.  But it was also a decade of amazing growth in Asia.  The above agriculture-veterinary school complex above in Fujian is just one of many in China and throughout Asia.  And this is just the ag school.  The facilities for engineering, science, and medicine are even more numerous and impressive.
1991  The fall of the Soviet Union
March 31 Soviet Republic of Georgia endorsed independence, Warsaw Pact dissolves
April 8 Oakland A's stadium becomes 1st outdoor arena to ban smoking
May 18 U.S.S.R. launches 2 cosmonauts to MIR space station
May 20 Soviet parliament approves law allowing citizens to travel abroad

May 21 Ethiopia's Marxist president (Mengistu Haile Mariam) resigns
May 23 Last Cubans troops leave Angola
May 28 Ethiopian rebels seize Addis Ababa
June 4 Lesbian priest Elizabeth Carl is ordained in Episcopal Church

June 4 Pope John Paul II compares abortion with nazi murders
June 5 Mikhail Gorbachev receives 1990 Nobel Peace Prize

July 11 Calumet Farm, home to 8 Kentucky Derby winners, files bankruptcy.  The horse racing industry begins a 2 plus decades of decline due to native indian run casinos, state lotteries, and later internet betting.
Many horse vets will lose a major part of their business.

July 31 Senate votes to allow women to fly combat aircraft
August 11 400,000 demonstrate for democracy in Madagascar, 31 killed
August 11 Shite Moslems release U.S. hostage Edward Tracy

August 20 Estonia declares it's independence from U.S.S.R.
August 21 Latvia declares it's independence from U.S.S.R.
August 24 Ukraine declares independence from U.S.S.R.
August 27 Moldavia declares independence from U.S.S.R.

October 7 Law Professor Anita Hill accuses Supreme nominee Clarence Thomas of making sexually inappropriate comments to her. Because he was a conservative black person the press destroyed him.  The accusation was likely false.

October 10 U.S. cuts all foreign aid to Haiti
October 21 U.S. hostage Jesse Turner released from 5 years in captivity in Beirut
October 31 Palestinians attend U.S. mideast peace talks in Madrid
November 6 Russian president Yeltsin outlaws Communist Party
November 12 Indonesian army shoots on funeral prossession: 270-520 die

November 17 1st TV condom ad aired (FOX- TV)
November 18 Moslem Shites release hostages Terry Waite and Thomas Sutherland
November 26 Condoms are handed out to thousands of New York High School students

November 29 TV show "Roc" has a gay wedding episode - Can't Help Loving that Man
December 3 Muslim Shites release U.S. hostage Alan Steen
December 4 Muslim Shites release last U.S. hostage Terry Anderson (held 6 years)
December 31 CPN, Communist Party of Netherland, last day of existance
December 31 U.S.S.R., last day of existence

First sensitive and specific test for Babesia equii antibody developed.
Equine babesiosis is a tick-borne protozoal infection of donkeys, mules, horses and zebra characterised by acute haemolytic anaemia. The disease is transmitted primarly by ixodid ticks. Equine babesiosis is present in most tropical and sub-tropical regions of the world where tick vectors are present. Only the United States, Canada, Australia, Japan, England and Ireland are not considered to be endemic areas. The disease is associated with high economic losses relating to treatment costs, loss of performance, abortion and death.

First vaccine for hepatitis A (Humans)

January 3 32 Cubans defect to the U.S. via helicopter
January 7 AT&T releases video-telephone ($1,499)
January 12 Algeria's general elections canceled after strong gains by Islamic Salvation Front in the 1st round

January 27 President candidate Bill Clinton (D) and Genifer Flowers accuse each other of lying over her assertion they had a 12-year affair. The press leaves the Clintons alone and attacks Ms Flowers.

March 17 28 killed in truck bombing of Israeli embassy in Buenos Aires, Argentina by Islamic Jihad

March 31 U.N. Security Council voted to ban flights and arms sales to Libya
April 6 Serbian troops begin siege of Sarajevo
April 11 Euro-Disney opens near Paris

May 21 China PR performs nuclear test at Lop Nor PRC
May 22 India launches its Agni rocket

June 19 Inkhata-blood bath in Boipatong South-Africa
September 10 Lucy in Peanuts raises her Pyschiatric Help from 5 cents to 47 cents

November 23 10,000,000 cellular telephone sold
December 3 U.N. votes unanimous for U.S. led forces to enter Somalia
December 22 Libyan MIG-23UB attacks Boeing 727 at Souk al-Sabt, 158 die

Developed paper from chicken feathers.

Showed that deficiency in either selenium or vitamin E can trigger a mutation in a normal benign human virus; first report of a specific nutritional deficiency permitting a nonvirulent virus to become virulent.

U.S. annual AIDS deaths approach 45,000

The new (1992) veterinary college outside Bangkok.  All the male students wear neckties.  Over the next 20+ years Asia will become a world class contender in biological, chemical, electronic, agricultural, and medical technologies. Much of their growth is aided and in cooperation with Western professors and universities.

The picture below is from the same veterinary school near Bangkok.  The young woman is a foreign exchange student from the West...kind of reversal in what we're used to.
The picture above is the agriculture-veterinary medicine teaching facility in Beijing. 
Beijing is a major and amazing city bigger and more populous than New York City. But it's notorious for it's air pollution so you can assume that the sky looks like the picture to your left and that the one above has been touched up.

Nonetheless, starting in the 1990's we start to become obvious that Asia is becoming a world class contender not just economically, but in electronics, medicine, the bio sciences, pharmaceuticals, and yes, veterinary medicine.
120,000 cattle have been diagnosed with BSE (mad cow disease) in Britain.
Veterinarians around the world become super vigilant

US Congressional Office of Technology Assessment (1993) estimated that between 130,000 and 3 million deaths could follow the aerosolized release of 100 kg of anthrax spore upwind of the Washington, D.C. area. The lethality would match or exceed that of a hydrogen bomb.  Veterinarians in the US become more vigilant and update their knowledge to be on the look out for this disease

Herds throughout Britain were tested, slaughtered, and burned on farm after farm in the attempt (successful) to rid the food supply of Mad Cow Disease
Yet another impressive agriculture-veterinary facility in China.  This one in Shandung
1993 continued

January 1 12 member European Economic Community set up vast free trade zone
January 1 Czechoslovakia separates into Czech Republic (Bohemia) and Slovakia

February 26 World Trade Center bombed, 7 die
March 17 86 killed by bomb attack in Calcutta
May 1 Bomb attack on Sri Lankan president (26 die)

May 7 South Africa agrees to multi-racial elections
June 14 Japanese space probe Sakigake passes Earth
June 23 U.N. authorizes worldwide oil embargo against Haiti

June 24 Arab terror group planning bombing of Holland/Lincoln Tunnels caught
June 26 Clinton orders cruise missle strike on Iraqi secret service in Baghdad
July 2 Moslem fundamentalists in Sivas Turkey, set hotel on fire, kill 36
July 16 President Lissouba calls emergency rule in Congo-Brazzaville
July 25 Israeli offensive against terrorist bases in South Lebanon

August 6 Pope John Paul II publishes Veritatis splendor encyclical
August 31 Venezuela president Carlos Perez flees
September 9 PLO recognizes state of Israel   Really?

October 3 Somali General Aidids arm forces kill 18 U.S. Rangers
October 7 Massive Moslem demonstrate in Xining China PR, 12 killed
November 9 Serbian army fires on school in Sarajevo, 9 children died
November 19 Algerian Moslem fundamentalists uprising, 27 killed
December 5 Astronauts begin repair of Hubble telescope in space

December 8 30 killed at religious rebellion in Algeria
December 14 Moslem fundamentalists murder 12 Kroates/Bosnians in Algeria
December 17 Bangladesh moslem call for murder of feminist Taslima Nasrin
December 30 Vatican recognizes Israel

Developed method to genetically modify Brucella abortus Strain 19, to differentiate between naturally infected and vaccinated animals.

First genetic linkage maps of cattle and swine constructed.

First sensitive and specific test developed for malignant catharrhal fever in sheep.

Cholera outbreak in South America

North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) goes into effect
January 10 Ukraine says it will give up world's 3rd largest nuclear arsenal
February 4 20 die in armed assault on mosque in Khartum Sudan
February 20 3 Afghans take 70 Pakistani children hostage

March 7 U.S. Navy issues 1st permanent order assigning women on combat ship
April 13 President guard at Kigali Rwanda, chops 1,200 church members to death
April 20 Serbian army bombs hospital in Goradze Bosnia, 47 killed
April 22 7,000 Tutsi's slaughtered in stadium of Kibuye Rwanda
May 10 Nelson Mandela sworn in as South Africa's 1st black president

June 20 Bomb attack on Islamic temple in Mashad Iran, 70 killed
July 24 Bodo kills 37 Moslems in Bashbari NE India
July 25 Jordan and Israeli end 46 year state of war (Washington D.C.)
July 26 Cambodia's Red Khmer surprise attack on train, kills 13

July 26 Turkish air force bombs Kurds, struggle in Iraq, 70 killed
July 29 200,000 Moslems demand death to feminist Taslima Nasrin
July 29 India army kills 27 Moslem militants

September 15 Moslem fundamentalists kidnap and behead 16 citizens in Algeria
October 26 Jordan and Israel sign peace accord

Experimentally infected cattle with transmissible mink encephalopathy and scrapie agents.

Death of Jonas Salk (developed a vaccine for polio for humans) (Dr Salk's son and daughter are veterinarians)

January 22 Palestinian bomb attack in Beit Lid Israel, 21-22 killed
January 30 Car bomb explodes in Algiers, 42 killed/296 injured

February 17 Federal judge allows lawsuit claiming U.S. tobacco makers knew nicotine was addictive and manipulated its levels to keep customers hooked

September 2014 Update;  Tobacco plants have now been successfully genetically modified to produce life saving high techs medicines including a new experimental medication that was used to save the two American medical aid workers that contacted ebola in Africa.  Plants, especially tobacco are now replacing animal cell cultures for the production of synthetic proteins.

February 25 Bomb attack on train in Assam India (27 soldiers killed)
February 25 Moslem fundamentalists shoot 20 shite mosque goers dead
February 27 Car bomb explodes in Zakho, North-Iraq (54-80 killed)
March 4 Blind teenage boy receives a 'Bionic Eye' at a Washington Hospital

March 5 Graves of czar Nicholas and family found in St. Petersburg
March 10 Car bomb explodes in Karachi at shite mosque, 17+ killed
March 17 U.S. approves 1st chicken pox vaccine, Varivax by Merck
March 20 Poison Gas released in Tokyo subway 12 killed, 4,700 injured

May 9 Kinshasa, Zaire under quarantine after an outbreak of Ebola virus
May 19 World's youngest doctor, Balamurali Ambati, 17, graduates Mount Sinai

November 19 Suicide bomber blasts into Egyptian embassy in Islamabad, kills 16
GPS  becomes functional for the first time


Isolated and developed DNA test to identify bacterium that caused swine diarrhea.

First sensitive and specific test for anaplasmosis antibody in cattle developed.

Robert Gallo's discovery that a natural compound known as chemokines can block HIV and halt the progression of AIDS is hailed by Science magazine as one of that year's most important scientific breakthroughs.

January 12 Russian troops arrived in Bosnia (joint operation with U.S.)
July 19 XXVI Olympic games open in Atlanta, Georgia
August 6 NASA announces that life may have existed on Mars

"Dolly" cloned from an udder cell of an adult sheep.

Mother Teresa, Princess Diana, James Michener, and Jimmy Stewart leave this world
January 15 Space Shuttle Atlantis docks with Mir Space Station
February 23 Ali Abu Kamal opens fire in Empire State Building and kills 1

March 2 Saudi billionaire Prince al-Waleed bin Talal aquires 5% of Apple Computer
March 4 Brazil Senate allows women to wear slacks
March 4 President Clinton bans federally funded human cloning research

March 17 CNN begins spanish broadcasts
May 9 1st U.S. ambassador since Saigon fell arrives in Vietnam

May 12 Russia and Chechnya sign peace deal after 400 years of conflict
May 27 1st all female (20 British women) team reaches North Pole
June 26 Supreme Court strikes down Internet indecency law
June 26 Supreme Court upholds doctor-assisted suicide ban

July 1 U.K. returns Hong Kong to China
July 8 NATO invites Poland, Hungary and Czech Republic to join
July 30 Terrorist double suicide bombing in Jerusalem, kills 14
October 4 Farm Aid 10 concert cancelled due to weak ticket sales
October 15 U.S. launches nuclear powered Cassini to Saturn

November 17 Islamist terrorists murder 60 tourists at Luxor in Egypt
December 29 Hong Kong begins slaughtering all its chickens to prevent bird flu
December 29 Russia signs agreement to build a $3B nuclear power plant in China

Bacterial microbe mixture PREEMPT developed for competitive exclusion of Salmonella.

First genetically engineered vaccine for shipping fever in cattle developed.

Discovered that dogs are a definitive host for Neospora.

First sensitive and specific test to detect Babesia caballi antibody in horses developed.

Gene-based test for Johne's disease in cattle developed.

First vaccine for rotavirus (Humans)

First vaccine for Lyme disease (Humans)

Stem Cell Technology developed

Roy Rogers, Frank Sinatra, Barry Goldwater, and Tammy Wynette leave this world
January 1 All California bars, clubs and card rooms must be smoke-free
January 1 U.S. Census Bureau estimates population at 268,921,733

January 17 President Clinton faces sexual harrament charges from Paula Jones
January 26 President Clinton says "I want to say one thing to the American people I did not have sexual relations with that woman, Miss Lewinsky"

January 27 First Lady Hilary Clinton blames charges that President Clinton had affairs part of a vast right-wing conspiracy

February 1 At least 119 Muslim pilgrims crushed to death during the annual stoning of Satan ritual in the Mena Valley, Saudi Arabia

February 12 U.S. district judge T. Hogan declares line-item veto law unconstitutional
May 11 India resumes underground nuclear tests after more than a 20 year gap
May 28 Pakistan tests underground nuclear weapons, sparking fears of a nuclear conflict with India

June 25 Supreme Court rules attorney-client privilege extends beyond the grave, exempting Vince Foster's conversations with his lawyers from being used as evidence by Kenneth Starr

August 15 Bill Clinton confesses to Hilary about the Monica Lewinsky affair
December 19 House of Representatives approves two articles of impeachment, charging President Clinton with lying under oath to a federal grand jury and obstructing justice

Modified live-bacterium fish vaccine approved; protects young channel catfish against enteric septicemia

Oct. 1999  Washington State University’s College of Veterinary Medicine establishes a program to help people grieving the loss of a pet. The Pet Loss Hotline acts as an outlet for people to share their feelings.

Since it was first identified in the United States in 1999, West Nile Virus has killed more than 650 people, and caused illness in more than 16,000.  Veterinarians taught to look for signs of this disease.

February 12 Senate acquits President Clinton of lying under oath and obstruction of justice in the Lewinski case

April 20 Two disaffected students brought guns to their high school in Columbine, Colorado and murdered twelve students, one teacher and then killed themselves

December 31 Control of Panama Canal reverts to Panama

This picture of Dr Baker treating patients with HAART (Highly Active Anti-retroviral Therapy), was taken in 2004, but the AIDS epidemic that swept the world in the 1990's led to massive amounts of money put into research searching for a vaccine, a cure, or at least a treatment.  The cause has been fairly successful and one of the side benefits of all this research has been amazing discoveries in DNA, stem cell, and genetic engineering technology.  And, of course,  resulted in the anti-retroviral therapy used by Dr Baker who I am honoring here because she was known to use her own money to purchase the needed medications her patients needed.
Many veterinarians work for the Center of Disease Control.  Monitoring suspicious animal deaths reported to them from veterinarians in the field (almost all vets, including me, are accredited federal (unpaid) agents trained to spot and report possible contagious diseases).  In the picture above, CDC wildlife vets are performing a necropsy on a Canadian Goose.  Migratory birds are just one possible danger in the transmission of disease.  Another function we perform as accreditied vets is to exam and sign health certificates for any and all animals crossing state or international lines. This is in addition to all the veterinarians working at our borders overseeing, testing, and tracking the movement of animals.... especially livestock. 
A Europe without frontiers

With the collapse of communism across central and eastern Europe, Europeans become closer neighbours. In 1993 the Single Market is completed with the the 'four freedoms' of: movement of goods, services, people and money. The 1990s is also the decade of two treaties, the ‘Maastricht’ Treaty on European Union in 1993 and the Treaty of Amsterdam in 1999. People are concerned about how to protect the environment and also how Europeans can act together when it comes to security and defence matters. In 1995 the EU gains three more new members, Austria, Finland and Sweden. A small village in Luxembourg gives its name to the ‘Schengen’ agreements that gradually allow people to travel without having their passports checked at the borders. Millions of young people study in other countries with EU support. Communication is made easier as more and more people start using mobile phones and the internet.
1993 U.S.-Vietnam
relations resume 20 years after we bugged out

In the picture above, Eric Storey, a veterinarian with the 994th Medical Detachment, instructs doctors from Vietnam's Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development.  Quite a few American veterinarians, pathologists, and scientists have been welcomed to Vietnam ever since for the purpose of sharing their expertise.

As Vietnam as become more and more prosperous, there are now many companion animal vets as well as farm vets.  One of my pet loving clients .... Dr Steve Klaine .... a toxocology professor at Clemson University recently went to Vietnam on such a professional visit.
The picture above is of the first GPS unit.  The GPS project began in 1973 and first became operational in 1995.  The amazing part, of course, is not what's in the unit above but in the satellite system that makes this possible.
These bulls were cloned from Panhandle Slim, the 1997 Professional Bull Riders bucking bull of the year
The above picture is from 2008 (California), but the first hydorgen fuel cell was developed in 1997
Nurse Juanita Broaddrick claims Bill Clinton raped her in 1978.  The press and women's groups ignore this claim.  On the other hand, they destroy black conservative Supreme Court nominee Clarence Thomas on accusations of sexist remarks.  Several other women claim they were pressured into having sex or having affairs with Clinton.

President Clinton lies to the American people as well as under oath and is impeached by Congress but aquitted by the Senate.
The press is divided on protraying Hillary has a brave, victimized wonder woman or an evil liar willing to destroy anyone that testifies against herself or her husband.