History of Veterinary Medicine

What's On This Page
A timeline of notable moments in veterinary history as well as major events in world history for context and interest.

Also, about the amazing discovery of ivermectin... a true wonder drug that saves BILLIONS of lives.  It was discovered on a golf course in the early 1970s.

Also about the increasing role of women in veterinary medicine.
On Other Pages

Introduction to the History of Veterinary Medicine

Veterinary Medicine before 1800











Veterinary History: The 2000's   

Women and minorities in Veterinary Medicine

Fascinating profiles of some early women veterinarians in the United States

The interesting battle against Hoof and Mouth Disease on the Mexican Border,   
Black Leg Disease, and Anthrax

A short history of Biological Warfare

Wars that started over PIGS

History of Antibiotics including the critical role played by the Pfizer Company

A little history about some milestones in treating heart disease

Veterinary History of South Carolina

A history of the Pet Food Industry

On Our Other Pages
(not about History)


Why some vets are so expensive

Abscesses The treatment of wounds, lacerations etc

Arthritis, Lameness, Joint and Bone Problems

Behavior Issues & Treatment


Bladder & Kidney Problems Infections, Stones, Crystals, Incontinence

Blood Disorders; Strokes, Vascular Diseases, Anemias, DVT, DIC, Blood Parasites, Rat Poison, Bleeding disorders etc

Cancer; Masses, Lumps and Bumps.  Surgical Treatment of Masses

Cats: Fun or interesting stuff about cats and a discussion about the diseases common in our feline companions to include Leukemia, Feline AIDS, & Cat Scratch Fever.

Cats that just aren't feeling well

Dentistry Discussion about the great importance of gum health and Oral Hygiene.

About the diagnosis and treatment of this very common problem in both cats and dogs

Dogs:  a hodge podge page of stuff about dogs.

Ear Problems
How I treat ear mites, ear allergies, aural hematomas, and ear infections.  This is my forte.

Eye Problems  and Ophthalmic Diseases Including:
Cataracts, Corneal Ulcers, Ingrown Lashes, Disautomia, Retinal problems, and Excessive Tearing

Exotics:  Pocket Pets, Rabbits, Hamsters and other little creatures

Heart disease; Cardiac diseases, vascular diseases, Stroke, heartworm treatment and prevention

History of Veterinary Medicine; lots of interesting stuff    

History of the Discovery of Antibiotics

The Human-Animal Bond
Comments & Stories about this topic close to my heart

Infectious Diseases  Colds, Distemper, Parvo, Lepto, Bruceellosis, Panleukopenia, Feline AIDS, Leukemia, Hepatitis, Kennel Cough, Ringworm, Rabies, FIP, Canine Herpes, Toxic Shock Syndrome, & More

Why I like and recommend Pet Insurance

Intestinal problems:diarrhea, constipation, torsion, indigestion, and gas.  Parvo, Dysentery

Kidney Diseases

Lab Tests; what they tell us

Liver Diseases     

Medications/Pharmacy Page

Metabolic Diseases: Diabetes, Thyroid Disease, Cushing's, Addison's, Pancreatitis, obesity as a disease

Neural Problems and Diseases: Epilepsy, Rabies, Distemper, FIP, Paralysis, Tetanus, Seizures, Disc Disease, Toxoplasmosis & others

Nutrition & Diet: General information
Including a surprise; who makes the diet your pet is eating?

Nutrition: Therapeutic Prescription Diets used to Treat Diseases To Include:
Diabetes, Diseases of the Gastro-Intestinal Tract, Heart Disease, Joint Diseases, Skin problems, Weight problems, Urinary Tract problems, and Kidney Disease.

Parasite Problems; Fleas, Ticks, Heartworms, Intestinal Worms, Mosquitos, Lice, Mites, and other welfare recipients

Poisons  Snakes, Insects, household chemicals, plants, and foods that might poison your pet

Discussion about problems related to the reproductive tract such as uterine infections, False Pregnancy, lack of milk, Infection of the mammary glands and trouble giving birth.  But also fun stuff like new born care. Aso about undescended testicles.

Respiratory Diseases

Senior Pet Page: Geriatric Medicine

Skeletal-Muscular Problems Arthritis, Fractures, ACL, Ligament Injuries, Disc Disease, Pannus, and many other problems of the bones, muscles, tendons, and ligaments

Skin Problems: allergies, rashes, bacterial infections, and itching. Hair Loss, Yeast Infections, Hormonal Problems

Surgery: Spays, Castrations, Testicle Recipes, Soft Tissue Surgery, Hard Tissue Surgery (Bones), C- Sections, Declawing, Tumor Removal and Cancer Surgery

Wounds, punctures, injuries, and abscesses

Urinary Tract Diseases and Problems

Vaccine and other preventive health recommendations

WildLife Page:  Taking care of baby bunnies, squirrels, and birds.  A very funny story about beavers, and other misc information

Zoonotics: Diseases People get from Pets, Worms & other Parasites People get from Pets.

On Our Other Sites

About  Our No Kill Shelter   

About Our  Veterinary Clinic

Home; Animal Pet Doctor    Our Veterinary Hospital in beautiful Seneca, South Carolina    Our No-Kill Shelter
There are many more links to our other pages below on your left and a complete directory of links at the bottom of the page


Population: 204,879,000
Unemployed in 1970: 4,088,000 
National Debt: $382 billion 
Average salary: $7,564 
Food prices: milk, 33 cents a qt.;  bread, 24 cents a loaf; round steak, $1.30 a pound 
Life Expectancy: Male, 67.1; Female, 74.8 
Farm population: 9,712,000; farmers 4.6% of labor force
Number of farms: 2.780, 000; average acres: 390


Farmers made up less than 5 percent of work force for the first time.

No-tillage agriculture popularized

Environmental Protection Agency established.

Discovered mode of inheritance of cyclic neutropenia in dogs.

Immunoglobulin IGA discovered in cows milk.

Killed-virus vaccine for Newcastle disease developed. 
Developing a safe and effective vaccine for this disease is a big deal.  Chicken is the number one source of meat eaten by humans world wide and Newcastle disease is... or at least was before effective vaccines were available... the number one cause of weak, sick and dead chickens.  (most avian species are affected to different degrees and there is also some risk to humans)
Newcastle disease can typically kill up to 80 percent of unprotected poultry in rural areas and is found throughout the developing world.  Newcastle disease is one of the most infectious diseases of poultry in the world with extremely high morbidity and mortality rates, especially in chickens (100% and 90%, respectively)

The global economic impact of Newcastle disease is enormous.  No other poultry virus comes close and it may represent a bigger drain on the world’s economy than any other animal virus. In developed countries outbreaks of Newcastle are extremely costly, and control measures, including vaccination, are a continuing loss to the industry. Countries free of Newcastle (the last major outbreak in the United States was 1974... thanks to vaccination programs, constant monitoring, strict husbandry management, and carefully enforced rules and government veterinary inspectors guarding our borders from letting parrots, other exotic birds, and live poultry enter from certain countries.  Unfortunately, like flu, there are many different strains of the Newcastle virus so we must remain ever vigilant.

Plant Variety Protection Act; Nobel Peace Prize awarded to Norman Borlaug for developing high-yielding wheat varieties

My Lai massacre revealed
Pentagon Papers published

January 3 Marxist government takes over in Congo
January 12 Biafran War ends, Biafra surrenders to Nigeria

January 16 Col Kadhaffi becomes premier of Libya
January 25 Robert Altman's "M*A*S*H," premieres

February 11 Japan becomes 4th nation to put a satellite, Osumi, in orbit
February 23 Holy Eucharist given by women for 1st time in Roman Catholic service

March 1 White government of Rhodesia declares independence from Britain
March 2 Supreme Court ruled draft evaders can not be penalized after 5 years

March 4 French submarine "Eurydice" explodes

March 5 SDS Weathermen terrorist group bomb 18 West 11th St. in New York City
Future President Obama thinks it's cool to be an associate of one of these terrorists.

March 12 U.S. lowers voting age from 21 to 18
March 18 Cambodia military coup under Gen Lon Nol, prince Sihanuk flees
March 25 Concorde makes its 1st supersonic flight (700 MPH/1,127 KPH)

March 26 500th nuclear explosion announced by the U.S. since 1945   This amazes me.  Am I wrong, but aren't the secondary effects of nuclear radiation devastating to the environment?  How many explosions since 1970?  As of 2013 apparently there have been over 2000 nuclear explosions with about half being done by the United States.

April 1 President Nixon signs bill limiting cigarette advertisements

April 9 Paul McCartney announces official split of Beatles

April 17 Apollo 13 returns back safely to Earth
April 24 China PR launches its 1st satellite transmitting song "East is Red"

April 29 50,000 U.S. and South Vietnamese troops invade Cambodia

May 4 National Guard kills 4 at Kent State in Ohio

May 4 Premier Kosygin affirms existence Russian military advisors in Egypt
May 15 France performs nuclear test at Muruora Island
May 15 South-Africa excluded from Olympic play

May 22 Arab terrorists kill 9 children and 3 adults on a school bus

June 16 Race riots in Miami, Florida
June 17 Edwin Land patents Polaroid camera

June 29 U.S. ends 2 month military offensive into Cambodia

July 4 100 injured in race rioting in Asbury Park, New Jersey

July 6 California passes 1st "no fault" divorce law

July 21 Huge Aswan Dam opens in Egypt
July 21 Libya orders confiscation of all Jewish property

July 29 6 days of race rioting in Hartford, Connecticut
August 29 Black Panthers confront cops in Philadelphia (1 cop killed)

September 6 Palestinians seize 3 jetliners

September 13 Palestine guerillas conquer Irbid, Jordan
September 15 PLO leader Arafat threatens to make a cemetery of Jordan ... This is the guy Sweden awarded with The Nobel Peace Prize

September 22 President Nixon requests 1,000 new FBI agents for college campuses

September 28 Anwar Sadat replaces Egyptian President Nassar

October 9 Khmer Republic (Cambodia) declares independence
October 10 Fiji gains independence from Britain (National Day)

November 7 Race riots in Daytona Beach Florida

November 12 Scientists perform 1st artificial synthesis of a live cell

November 13 Cyclone kills estimated 300,000 in Chittagong Bangladesh
November 13 Flooding ravages Ganges delta, 200,000-1 million killed

November 20 U.N. General Assembly accepts membership of China PR

November 27 Pope Paul VI wounded in chest during a visit to Philippines by a dagger-wielding Bolivian painter disguised as a priest

December 15 Soviet Venera 7 is 1st spacecraft to land on another planet (Venus)

December 17 Gdansk, Poland ship workers strike
December 23 NY World Trade Center reaches highest point (411 m)


Marek's disease vaccine developed.
Marek's disease is a highly contagious viral neoplastic disease in chickens. It is named after József Marek, a Hungarian veterinarian.  This is another big deal.
Humans raise, slaughter, and eat billions of chickens each year.  Most of these chickens are raised in confined conditions.  However you feel about this, it's a shame to lose a large percentage of these birds to Marek's disease, Avian Influenza, Newcastle disease and Salmonella.

First comprehensive study on the effects of feeding aflatoxin to livestock and poultry published.

Microcomputers invented. This, of course is a big deal too, but doesn't have anything to do veterinarians in particular.

January 1 Cigarette advertisements banned on TV

January 25 Military coup in Uganda under Gen Idi Amin Dada

February 4 National Guard mobilized to quell rioting in Wilmington NC

February 5 Apollo 14, 3rd U.S. manned Moon expedition, lands near Fra Mauro Alan Shepard and Edward Mitchell (Apollo 14) walk on Moon for 4 hrs  (Neil Armstrong was the first man to walk on the moon a couple of years earlier (July 1969)

February 7 Swiss men accept female suffrage

February 8 South Vietnamese troops invade Laos

February 11 U.S., U.K., U.S.S.R., others sign Treaty outlawing nuclear weapons

February 24 Algeria nationalizes French oil companies

March 14 South Vietnamese troops flee Laos
March 29 1st Lt William L Calley, Jr. found guilty in My Lai (Vietnam) massacre

April 20 U.S. Supreme Court upholds use of busing to achieve racial desegregation
April 25 About 200,000 anti-Vietnam War protesters march on Washington

May 3 Nixon administration arrests 13,000 anti-war protesters in 3 days
May 5 Race riot in Brownsville section of Brooklyn (New York City)
May 21 National Guard mobilizes to quell riot in Chattanooga, Tennessee
June 8 North Vietnam demands U.S. end aid to South Vietnam

August 14 Bahrain proclaims independence after 110 years of British rule

August 15 President Nixon announces 90-day freeze on wages, prices and rents

September 3 Watergate team breaks into Daniel Ellsberg's doctor's office
Daniel Ellsberg went to the same prep school as I did (Cranbrook).  Presidential candidate Mitt Romney as another graduate.

October 1 Walt Disney World in Orlando, Florida opens

October 11 Switzerland recognizes North Vietnam

October 25 U.N. votes to expel Taiwan and admit Red China
November 18 China PR performs nuclear test at Lop Nor PRC

December 2 Abu Dhabi, Ajman, Dubai, Fujeira, Sharjah and Umm ak Qiwain form United Arab Emirates declaring independence from UK

December 16 Bangladesh (East Pakistan) declares independence from Pakistan


First recombinant DNA molecule synthesized.  This technology in now (2014) used to make modern vaccines.

Federal Water Pollution Control Act passed.

Clean Air Act passed.

Consumer Product Safety Act passed.

DDT use banned in the U.S.

Spiroplasmas discovered, an entirely new class of disease-causing organisms.

Five men, all employees of Nixon's reelection campaign, are caught breaking into rival Democratic headquarters at the Watergate complex in Washington.  This leads to President Nixon resignation

January 23 Entire population of Istanbul under 24 hour house arrest

January 26 Stewardess Vesna Vulovic survives 10,160m fall without parachute

January 30 Bloody Sunday: British soldiers shoot on Catholics in Londonderry, 13 die

February 5 U.S. airlines begin mandatory inspection of passengers and baggage
February 21 Richard Nixon becomes 1st U.S. president to visit China

March 4 Libya and U.S.S.R. signs cooperation treaty

March 8 1st flight of the Goodyear blimp
March 30 North Vietnamese troops enter South Vietnam

April 4 1st electric power plant fueled by garbage begins operating

April 9 U.S.S.R. and Iraq sign friendship treaty

April 10 U.S., U.S.S.R. and 70 other nations agree to ban biological weapons

April 16 2 giants pandas arrive in U.S., from China

April 28 Courts awarded Kentucky Derby prize money to 2nd place winner because winner was given drugs before race

July 18 Egypt president Sadat throws 20,000 Russian military aids out

July 21 Bloody Friday: 22 IRA-bombs explode in Belfast

September 6 Summer Olympics resume in Munich Germany after massacre by Muslim terrorists.

September 22 Muslim terrorist, dictator and mass murderer Idi Amin throws 8,000 Asians out of Uganda     Similar numbers of anyone in opposition were slaughtered or "disappeared".

September:  President Marcos imposed martial law on the nation from 1972 to 1981 to suppress increasing civil strife and the threat of a communist takeover following a series of bombings in Manila.

October 12 46 sailors injured in race riot on aircraft carrier Kitty Hawk

November 7 President Nixon (R) re-elected defeating George McGovern (D)


Endangered Species Act passed. 

First gene splicing performed.

Caprine (GOAT)  arthritis and encephalitis of goats described.

Fifty farmers organize California Certified Organic Farmers

Roe v. Wade: Landmark Supreme Court decision legalizes abortion in first trimester of pregnancy

CAT scan invented by Godfrey Hounsfield and Allan Cormack

Cease-fire in Vietnam    U. S. forces start withdraw
January 8 Secret peace talks between U.S. and North Vietnam resumed near Paris
January 15 President Nixon suspends all U.S. offensive action in North Vietnam

January 22 US, North and South Vietnam and North Vietnam sign boundary accord which everyone knew was a fraud... In a move nearly identical to France's withdrawal from Algeria... France, (in preparing to withdrawal from Algeria) and the United States (in preparing to withdrawal from Vietnam) pretended to withdraw with "honor" because they weren't abandoning their previous allies because there was a piece of paper saying the winning Algerian Nationalists in Algeria and the Viet Cong in North Vietnam would not massacre those left behind.  In reality, we expected mass murder, hundreds of thousands of refuges, and confiscation of property.  And that was the result the minute France gave up power in Algeria and when The United States left Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia.  The numbers killed and forced to flee AFTER we withdrew in Vietnam was much higher than the numbers killed in the years of bombings and battles in the actual war.

February 12 1st U.S. POWs in North Vietnam released; 116 of 456 flown to Philippines

February 22 U.S. and China agree to establish liaison offices in Beijing and Washington D.C.  China is now our biggest trade partner.

February 27 American Indian Movement occupy Wounded Knee in South Dakota

March 2 "Black September" terrorists occupy Saudi Embassy in Khartoum

March 29 U.S. troops leave Vietnam, 9 years after Tonkin Resolution

April 10 Pakistan suspends constitution

May 14 Skylab launched, 1st Space Station

May 14 U.S. Supreme Court approves equal rights to females in military

June  Future veterinarian Roger Ross (that's me) graduates from Cranbrook School and heads off to Cornell. (Although I ended up graduating from Michigan State after serving in the US Army.)  Forgive my nostalgia, but I posted some pictures of Cranbrook's beautiful campus where I lived as a boarding student for the last 3 forms. "Aim High".  The pictures are below on your left.  (Famous Cranbrook alumni, includes designer Florence Knoll, former U.S. Senator Alan K. Simpson, Heisman Trophy winner Pete Dawkins, Pentagon Papers whistleblower Daniel Ellsberg, former Massachusetts governor and 2012 Presidential candidate Mitt Romney and his wife Ann Romney (née Davies), columnist Michael Kinsley, Sun Microsystems founder Scott McNealy, former professional soccer player Alexi Lalas, and actress Selma Blair.)

July 10 Bahamas declares Independence from U.K. and adopts constitution

August 5 Arab terrorists open fire at Athens airport, kills 3 injures 55

September 13
Syrian/Israeli dogfight over Mediterranean Sea   Israel shoots down 13 Syrian MIG-21s

September 28 Palestinian Terrorists hijack Austrian train

October 6 Yom Kippur War begins as Syria and Egypt attack Israel
October 13 Jordan enters Yom Kippur war
October 24 Yom Kippur War ends, Israel 65 miles from Cairo, 26 miles from Damascus
October 26 Israeli forces reach Suez, trapping Egyptian army

November 16 President Nixon authorizes construction of Alaskan pipeline.  We take this for granted now.  But this project of building a pipeline in arctic conditions was so expensive, so huge, and such an engineering challenge that it could be considered comparable to building the pyramids in Egypt.

November 25 3 Palestinians hijack KLM B747 above Iraq, to Dubai
December 17 Arabs terrorists shoot passengers on Boeing 737 to Kuwait

December 23 6 Persian Gulf nations double their oil prices. 
Once again, huge Arab armies, bragging that they will "drive all the Jews into the sea" are so deceptive and conniving with each other and to their own countrymen, that after being defeated in days by tiny Israel .... have to blame someone... so in retaliation for The United States selling supplies to our Israeli allies OPEC drastically raised oil prices which was indeed a major hit to our economy.  Some of the consequences included huge amounts of money flooding Arab nations (much of this money would be used to fund terrorism over the following decades), the new nationwide 55mph speed limit, and the huge change over from big gas guzzling cars in favor of small engine Japanese models.  Also the political go ahead to approve The Alaskan Pipeline.


United States ratified the Convention on International Trade of Endangered Species (CITES).

First vaccine for chicken pox. (Human)

Giorgio Fischer a gynecologist invents liposuction

Raymond Damadian, American physician, is granted a patent on his invention of the magnetic resonance imaging device  (MRI).

January 12 Libya and Tunisia announces they are merging as "Islamic Arab Republic"

February 10 Iran/Iraqi border fight breaks out

July 29 Episcopal Church ordained female priests

August 9 Richard Nixon resigns presidency, VP Gerald Ford becomes 38th president

September 16 President Ford announces conditional amnesty for U.S., Vietnam War deserters

Playing Pong
The Picture on your left is a beautiful Tennesee Walking Horse competing in a show.  Tennesse Walkers are famous for their smooth ride AND and dramatically showy gait ... and having a Tennesee Walking Horse would be comparable to having a flashy luxury car today.

The heavy shoes on the front feet make him raise his hooves even higher than would be natural which might help him win the show. This is allowed as it is non painful. 

Thanks to the Horse Protection Act of 1970, what's not allowed is purposely putting painful ointments on the lower front legs to achieve this affect.  Hopefully as we evolve as humans, we will also ban many other historical practices that were and are pretty cruel... often for no other reason than showing off.
Horse Protection Act passed.
Basically this Protection Act, among other things considered cruel, made it a crime to practice soring. 
Tennessee Walking Horses pick up their feet naturally in a showy high step but some people wanted to make this action more dramatic so would apply irritants or "blistering agents" to the front feet or forelegs of a horse in a practice... now illegal. called soring.
A Little About Women Veterinarians:

Before 1972, there were fewer than 500 female veterinarians in the United States. Around that time, Congress passed several landmark education acts forbidding colleges from denying qualified women a place in their classrooms. Almost immediately, the number of women enrolled in vet schools shot up.

"It used to be that high school guidance counselors told women, 'Well, you can't be a veterinarian,' so they wouldn't even think about it," said Dr. Bonnie Beaver, president-elect of the American Veterinary Medical Association and a professor at Texas A&M's vet school. Today, young women see just as many female vets as they do male, she said.

Veterinary medicine has also changed dramatically in recent decades. Forty years ago, cows, horses and other livestock were the primary patients. Being a vet was regarded as a rough, dirty and sometimes dangerous job - or, in the language of the day, "a man's work."

Today, care of large or farm animals is still a sizable industry. But the majority of vets nationwide work on the family pet, not the family farm. Modern medicine and sedatives also allow male and female veterinarians of any size to safely work on even the largest livestock

I've devoted a couple of pages on this subject.  Please check out:

Women and minorities in Veterinary Medicine

Fascinating profiles of some early women veterinarians in the United States

A Little About the 1970's in America:

The floppy disc appeared in 1970, and the next year Intel introduced the microprocessor, the "computer on a chip."  

Apollo 17, the last manned craft to the moon, brought back 250 samples of rock and soil. 
Unmanned space probes explored the moon, Jupiter, Mars, Saturn, Uranus, and Venus.  The U.S. Apollo 18 and the USSR's Soyuz 19 linked up in space to conduct joint experiments.

Atari produced the first low-priced integrated circuit TV games, and the videocassette recorder (VCR) changed home entertainment. 

Jumbo jets revolutionized commercial flight, doubling passenger capacity and increasing flight range to 6,000 miles. 

The neutron bomb, which destroys living beings but leaves buildings intact, was developed.

In medicine, ultrasound diagnostic techniques were developed.  The sites of DNA production on genes were discovered, and the fledging research in genetic engineering was halted pending development of safer techniques. 

The first test tube baby, Louise Brown, was born, developed from an artificially inseminated egg implanted in the mother's womb. 

The 1970's introduced:

Laser Printers
The first space lab


Avermectins discovered.  The "wonder drug" that few lay people know about. This discovery is a really, really, big deal positively affecting BILLIONS of human and animal lives.  

The ivermectins are derived and a natural organism found in the soil that has a wide range of safety and have proven very effective against most major internal and external parasites affecting all types of animals, humans, and I'm pretty sure in agricultural and ornamental plants and crops.

Originating from a single Japanese soil sample, apparently taken from a golf course, ivermectin, the safest and most widely used derivative of avermectin, was initially available as a commercial product for animals in 1981... just 6 years from discovery to market.  It turned out to be effective against so many parasites that greatly affected animal health and economics; gastrointestinal roundworms, lungworms, other nematodes, heartworms, ear mites, mange, other mites, lice, hornflies, fish lice, and ticks, including the ixodid tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, one of the most important cattle parasites in the tropics and subtropics, which causes enormous economic damage.  Ivermectin is being used to treat billions of horses, farm animals and pets around the world. 

In 1988, Ivermectin proved to be even more of a ‘Wonder drug’ in human health, improving the nutrition & general health of billions of people worldwide when it was found to treat or cure Onchocerciasis, Strongyloidiasis, Ascariasis, cutaneous larva migrans, filariases, Gnathostomiasis and Trichuriasis, as well as external parasites that plague people in the tropics and poorer nations like lice and scabies.

Ivermectin is the essential mainstay of two global disease elimination campaigns that should soon rid the world of two of its most disfiguring and devastating diseases, Onchocerciasis (also known as river blindness and Robles disease, it is caused a parasitic worm spread by the bite of a black fly. Symptoms include severe itching, bumps under the skin, and blindness. It is the second most common cause of blindness due to infection, after trachoma.) and Lymphatic filariasis, which blight the lives of billions of the poor and disadvantaged throughout the tropics.

The discovery story is interesting.

Researchers at Tokyo’s Kitasato Institute were well known for searching for and finding organisms from soil samples that showed some form of bio activity that might be useful.  The head researcher of the Antibiotics Research Group (Satoshi Õmura) left the institute in Japan for a research sebatical abroad ... at Wesleyan University, Connecticut to work with Max Tischler* who had an amazing career with the giant drug company Merck, Sharp, and Dohme.

Because of this serendipitous working relationship between Doctors Omura and Tishler,  a collaboration with the US-based Merck, Sharp and Dohme (MSD) pharmaceutical company and Kitasato Institute was created... another first... an international partnership between a private research corporation and a public research institution in Japan. 

The Kitasato Institute iin Tokyo isolated organisms from soil samples and carried out preliminary in vitro evaluation of their bioactivity. Promising bioactive samples were then sent to the Merck Sharp, and Dohme laboratories for further in vivo testing where a potent and promising novel bioactivity was found, subsequently identified as being caused by a new compound, which was named ‘avermectin'.
Further work indicated that derivatives from avermectin... especially ivermectin... were extremely effective ... and safe... against a wide range of parasites.

Very darn lucky, it turns out, because despite decades of searching around the world since then, the Japanese microorganism remains the only source of avermectin ever found.  And maybe because Dr. Omura was a lousy golfer who hit his ball off the fairway and decided to collect some soil. 

Monoclonal antibodies invented.

Demonstrated that a fraction of the virus that causes foot-and-mouth disease is not infectious, but produces immunity in livestock.

1975 Vietnam falls to the communists leading to mass murder and millions of refuges fleeing for their lives
The situation is even worse in Cambodia


Beef Research and Information Act passed.

Federal Land Policy and Management Act repealed Homestead Act and many other land laws.

Propagated bovine leukemia virus in cell culture.

Discovered direct relationship between Neotyphodium coenophialum fungus in fescue and disease in cattle.

First vaccine for pneumonia  (Human)

Jimmy Carter is inaugurated as the 39th president President Carter signs treaty agreeing to turn control of Panama Canal over to Panama on Dec. 31, 1999.


United States declared free of hog cholera.

Sadat and Begin sign Camp David Accord, ending 30-year conflict between Egypt and Israel

First test-tube baby is born in the U.K.

First vaccine for meningitis (Humans)


Smallpox eliminated, the only microbial disease ever completely defeated.

ultrasound scan invented by Ian Donald

U.S. establishes diplomatic ties with mainland China for the first time since Communist takeover in 1949

Malfunction at Three Mile Island nuclear reactor in Pennsylvania causes panic

Iranian students storm U.S. embassy in Teheran and hold 66 people hostage

USSR invades Afghanistan

I was going to place a picture here with one of the gross parasites that ivermectin treats but elected to put this nice picture of Wesleyan University here instead. 
* Max Tishler PhD (Harvard) (October 30, 1906 – March 18, 1989) was president of Merck Sharp and Dohme Research Laboratories where he led the research teams that synthesized ascorbic acid, riboflavin, cortisone, miamin, pyridoxine, pantothenic acid, nicotinamide, methionine, threonine, and tryptophan. He also developed the fermentation processes for actinomycin, vitamin B12, streptomycin, and penicillin. Tishler invented sulfaquinoxaline for the treatment for coccidiosis.
Cranbrook School.  I'm a proud graduate of 1973
Kingswood School... the girls school across the lake
from Cranbrook.... now merged and co-ed
Aim High was our school motto
The graduate school for Science which shared the Cranbrook Campus.
Website Directory

Home    The Human-Animal Bond     The History of Veterinary Medicine    About our No Kill Shelter     The FoxNest Veterinary Hospital     

"What To Expect When You Go To The Vet"
if your pet should have a problem with ...

Abscesses, wounds, and injuries

Arthritis, Lameness, Fractures, and Ligament Injuries
To include Femoral Head Removal, Hip Dysplasia, Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injuries, Panosteitis, Radiographic Demonstrations, Disc Disease, and Bone Surgery

Bladder, Urinary Tract, & Kidney Problems

Blood Diseases, Anemias etc
Strokes, Vascular Diseases, Anemias, DVT, DIC, Blood Parasites, Rat Poison, & Bleeding disorders

Cancer, Masses, Lumps and Bumps

Cardiology  Heart disease in Cats, Cardiac Hypertrophy, Valvular disease, Cardiac Insufficiency, Congestive Heart Failure, Heartworm Disease, and a little history about the milestones in treating heart disease

Cats: general information page and directory of diseases and problems specific to cats including vaccine recommendations, leukemia, feline viral infections, feline upper respiratory disease and cats that just aren't feeling well.

Dentistry and problems of the mouth and throat

Dermatology: Skin problems including allergies, rashes, bacterial infections, and itching. Hair Loss, Yeast Infections, Hormonal Problems


Ear Infections and Other Ear Problems

Eye Problems  and Ophthalmic Diseases

Exotics:  Pocket Pets, Rabbits, Hamsters etc

Fleas, Ticks, and other parasite problems

Heart disease; Cardiac diseases, vascular diseases, stroke, & heartworms

Hormone Diseases: Diabetes, Thyroid Disease, Cushing's Disease or Hypercortisolism, Addison's disease or Hypocortisolism, Pancreatitis, obesity as a disease

Infectious Diseases  Colds, Distemper, Parvo, Leptospirosis, Bruceellosis, Panleukopenia, Feline AIDS, Leukemia, Hepatitis, Kennel Cough, Ringworm, Rabies, FIP, Canine Herpes, Toxic Shock Syndrome, & More

Intestinal problems: diarrhea, constipation, torsion, indigestion, and gas. Also pancreatitis, vomiting, esophagitis, colitis, parvo and other types of dysentery

Kidney Disease

Liver Diseases     

Metabolic Diseases: Diabetes, Thyroid Disease, Cushing's Disease or Hypercortisolism, Addison's disease or Hypocortisolism, Pancreatitis, obesity as a disease

Neural Problems and Diseases: Epilepsy, Rabies, Distemper, FIP, Paralysis, Tetanus, Seizures, Disc Disease, Toxoplasmosis & others

Obesity; new information and about Pfizer's new FDA approved treatment


Parasite Problems Fleas, Ticks, Heartworms, Intestinal Worms, Mosquitos, Lice, Mites, and other welfare recipients

Poisons  Snakes, Insects, household chemicals, plants, and foods that might poison your pet

Respiratory Diseases

Senior Pet Page: Geriatric Medicine

Skeletal-Muscular Problems Arthritis, Fractures, ACL, Ligament Injuries, Disc Disease, Pannus, and many other problems of the bones, muscles, tendons, and ligaments

Skin Problems: allergies, rashes, bacterial infections, and itching. Hair Loss, Yeast Infections, Hormonal Problems

Surgery: Spays, Castrations, Testicle Recipes, Soft Tissue Surgery, Hard Tissue Surgery (Bones), C- Sections, Declawing, Tumor Removal and Cancer Surgery

Wounds, punctures, injuries, and abscesses

Urinary Tract Diseases and Problems

Other Topics on This Site

The Human-Animal Bond

History of Veterinary Medicine; lots of interesting stuff    

Zoonotics: Diseases, worms, and parasites people get from pets.

Lab Tests and what they tell us

Medications/Pharmacy Page

Nutrition & Diets
Includes information about Prescription diets used to treat disease, and a discussion about the pet food industry

Reproduction, breeding, & rearing information
Includes information about feline and canine heat or estrus, breeding, C-Sections, pyometra or Infected Uterus, dystocia, no milk, mastitis, & brucellosis
Also newborn care, undescended testicles, and alternative to spaying and castration

Vaccine and other preventive health recommendations

WildLife Page:  Taking care of baby bunnies, squirrels, and birds.  A very funny story about beavers, and other misc information

Our Dog Page:  a directory of problems of concern in dogs including parvovirus, distemper, canine herpes, and other diseases

Veterinary Pet Insurance